The Complete Musician - [PDF Document] (2023)



    Third edition

    Steven G. Laitz Eastman School of Music


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    Cataloging Data in Library of Congress Publication

    Laitz, Steven G. (Steven Geoffrey) The Complete Musician: An Integrated Approach to Tonal Theory,

    analysis and listening / Steven G. Laitz.-3rd ed. pcm

    ISBN 978-0-19-974278-3 (hardcover) 1. Music theory textbooks. 2. Tone. 3. Musical analysis. I. Title. MT6.L136C66 2012781.2-dc22

    Print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper


  • To my family: Anne-Marie, Madeleine, and of course Willow and Winn-Dixie.

  • 4


    Preface xii


    1 Musical space and time 2 2 Use of space and time: Introduction to melody

    and two-voice counterpoint 41 3 Musical density: triads, seventh chords and texture 64


    4 When harmony, melody and rhythm converge 84 5 The tonic and dominant as tonal pillars and introduction

    a Voice Leading 103 6 The impact of Meteron's melody, rhythm and harmony;

    Introduction to V7; and harmonizing floral melodies 120 7 Contrapuntal tonic and dominant expansions: six-three chords 1428 More contrapuntal expansions: V7 inversions, Introduction

    for major seventh tone chords and reduction and elaboration 160


    9 The Predominant Function and Phrase Pattern 190 10 Accented and Chromatic Embellishment Tones 206 11 Six-Four Chords, Subdominant Revision, and Summary

    of contrapuntal expansions 227 12 The predominant refines the sentence model 246

    PART 4 ​​NEW CHORDS AND NEW FORMS 267 13 The Submediant: A New Diatonic Harmony,

    and other extensions of the sentence pattern 268 14 The median, the retro-related dominant and a summary

    of diatonic harmonic relationships 286 15 The period 297 16Other small musical structures: phrases, double periods,

    and Modified Periods 310 17 Harmonic Sequences 325


    PART 5 FUNCTIONAL CHROMATISM 347 18 Applied chords 348 19 Tonalization and modulation 371 20 Binary form and variations 389


    21 Modal Mixing 418 22 Expansion of Modal Mixing Harmonies: Chromatic Modulation

    and the German lied 437 23 The Neapolitan (~II) chord 460 24 The augmented sixth chord 472


    25 Ternary Forma 494 26 Rondo 521 27 Sonata Forma 537

    PART 8 INTRODUCTION TO 19TH CENTURY HARMONY: THE CHANGE FROM ASYMMETRY TO SYMMETRY 585 28 New Harmonic Trends 586 29 The Emergence of Symmetrical Harmony in Tonal Music 606 30 Combining Melodic and Harmonic Symmetry: Chromatic Sequences 624 31 On the Edge of Hue 648


    Appendix 1 Fundamentals A. The Field of Tuning 681 B. Pulse, Rhythm, and Meter 699 C. Intervals 713 D. Triads, Inversions, Figurative Bass, and Harmonic Analysis 726 E. Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis 744

    Appendix 2 Inverted Counterpoint, Composite Melody, and Implied Harmonies 754

    Appendix 3 The Ratio 768 Appendix 4 Additional Topics on Harmonic Sequences 804 Appendix 5 Abbreviations and Acronyms 811 Appendix 6 Selected Answers to Textbook Exercises 815

    Index of terms and concepts 866 Index of musical examples and exercises 872


  • XI


    Music students often suffer during their theory and listening skills courses, seeing them as not particularly relevant, with perhaps seven painful side effects.

    lines of his musical studies. This is unfortunate, as an unsatisfactory experience early on often has a negative effect on student attitudes in subsequent academic years. Some students express concern that much of the listening skills and theoretical curriculum has little to do with music production. More significant. Out-of-context intervals and interlocking chords, disembodied harmonic progressions rob the music of its own life. Arguably the most important component of any music theory curriculum, analysis sometimes boils down to nothing more than Roman numerals and shape labels.

    There is no doubt that reading and understanding theoretical texts can be especially daunting, given their encyclopedic nature and the amount of detail that represents exceptions rather than the norms of tonal music. This third edition of The CompleteMusician is specifically designed to allay the fears of students by making the material more accessible and immediate to their experience as musicians, which results in a more attractive, musical and integrated text of tonal theory for students. of music.

    Underlying Approach The Complete Musician is based on three simple premises. First, I believe students can learn to listen, understand, and model the structure and syntax of the music they love. Second, I am of the opinion that the same simple processes underlie all tonal music and that they unfold in wonderfully diverse ways. Third, I believe students will rise to the challenge when all of their senses are stimulated and immersed in instrumental and vocal music from the tonal repertoire.

    A hierarchical approach that illuminates how the harmony of a given passage emerges from the combination of melodic lines is fundamental to The Complete Musician. The premise of the tonal music book as a fusion of melody, contrast


    The point and harmony will appeal to single-line musicians and singers, as well as keyboardists. The text presents a multi-stage listening and writing process whereby students consider the external voice counterpoint and metrical structure of a passage to discern its harmonic flow. Based on tonal norms, students should be able to connect their basic musical instincts with what they hear and see. For example, students will learn to play the missing cello line of a string quartet when the sheet music provided contains only the top instruments, but the recorded performance includes all four instruments. By integrating an understanding of tonal procedures, analytical strategies, and the ability to read music by singing, playing, and listening, students are expected to emerge from the course as independent, well-rounded musicians.

    The book's easy-to-use, multi-level analytical approach emphasizes the distinction between description (i.e., labeling a given voicing according to its scale-degree relationship to the tonic using Roman numerals and figured bass) and interpretive analysis (i.e., exploring the metric rhythmic location, spacing, sonority, duration and possible motivic context of a sonority to determine its function). Interpretive analysis, then, draws heavily on students' musical instincts and experiences. Students should be given significant responsibility in the classroom and thus discover that successfully negotiating an exercise depends more on a series of well-informed musical decisions than on a "yes." "or" no answers." The role of students as active participants whose opinions matter is central to the spirit of this text.

    Audience The Complete Musician should appeal to music students of varying levels of proficiency. The text assumes that there are many levels of student experience and background as there are students using the text. To that end, each topic is presented in a graded form, tailored to meet the specific needs of students. For those with limited training in music theory, a new Fundamentals unit in Appendix 1 provides a basic introduction to important concepts and terminology with several simple exercises to help reinforce learning. For students with a broader exposure to music theory, Chapters 1 through 3 provide a review of the fundamentals and an introduction to more advanced concepts, including rhythmic and metric dissonance, melody, species counterpoint, and musical texture.

    Instructors will find that the Third Edition can be implemented with a variety of curricula. As an integrated text, it can be used for both written theory and listening skills lessons. Given detailed chapters on musical form (periods, binary, ternary, rondo, and sonata), an instructor can choose to incorporate them as the lesson progresses through harmonic themes or defer them to later in the curriculum. For instructors with students who want to learn what happens beyond the usual end of the common practice harmonic spectrum (circa 1820), the last four chapters of the text present tonal practices from the 19th and early 20th centuries. In fact, entire chapters on motivic structures, composed melody, and invertible counterpoint appear in the Appendices, which may or may not be covered, depending on the student population and the curriculum requirements of the institution.


    Musical examples The motor of the book is the musical literature, because, obviously, it is this that illuminates the theory. The repertoire included ranges from Wipo's 11th century setting of "Victimae pachali laudes" to John Coltrane's "Giant Steps", from solo vocal and instrumental music to orchestral repertoire, from Haydn's "London" Symphonies to the latest piano preludes by Scriabin. The inclusion of music from an entire millennium (with a focus on common practice repertoire) dramatically emphasizes the fact that finite and specific harmonic and contrapuntal procedures are a common thread running through the stylistic differences of this music. Furthermore, although the examples in a purely homophonic texture neatly illustrate commonly practiced harmonic idioms, they do not develop students' ability to negotiate the variety of textures and styles fundamental to the repertoire they hear and perform. Over 600 high-quality recorded examples and mp3 exercises are included on a free CD with every copy of the book; More than 3,900 additional examples are presented in mp3 format on the CDs included free of charge in each of the two workbooks (1,500 examples on Workbook CD 1: Writing and Analysis and 2,400 on Workbook CD 2: Musicality and Skills). The music is performed by soloists and ensembles from the Eastman School of Music and the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra.

    Integration The Complete Musician integrates the tasks that make up a tonal theory curriculum, explicitly connecting writing theory (the writing part, composition and analysis), musical skills (singing, playing, improvising and dictating) and making music outside the classroom. theory. The text emphasizes tonal harmony and includes a variety of musical examples drawn from the literature (excerpts and whole pieces), as well as detailed treatment of small and large forms and keyboard application. This new edition includes over 300 new examples of Sight Singing.

    Introduction and rhythm of themes The Complete Musician includes a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals (including discussions of melodic composition and analysis, species hierarchy, and counterpoint). In addition to diatonic and chromatic procedures, other dimensions of the tonal tradition are given full treatment, including small formal structures (motif, phrase, period, and sentence) as well as larger forms (binary, ternary, rondo, and sonata). and, new to this edition, sonata-rondo) and stylistic distinctions between eighteenth- and nineteenth-century tonal practice.

    The Complete Musician is not an overview of the main points of music theory, nor is it a study of all issues associated with tonal music. Instead, he strives to develop a deep understanding of concepts, devoting one or more chapters to crucial topics related to the tonal tradition, such as sequences, composed melody, motive, and invertible counterpoint. Materials are presented at a pace that maximizes learning. Concepts are introduced in their most common musical contexts and immediately reinforced with a


    Steven Harper, Georgia State University Brian Head, University of Southern California Aine Heneghan, University of Washington Roman Ivanovitch, Indiana University David Marcus, Georgia State University Jonathan McNair, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Jeffrey Miller, California State University, East Bay Neil Minturn, University of Missouri-Columbia Rachel Mitchell, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Jeff Perry, Louisiana State University Boyd Pomeroy, University of Arizona Brian Post, Humboldt State University Alex Reed, University of Florida Toby Rush, University of the North of Colorado Ciro Scotto , University of South Florida JimScully, California State University, Bakersfield Michael Slayton, Vanderbilt University Eliyahu Tamar, Duquesne University Reynold Tharp, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Don Traut, University of Arizona Leigh VanHandel, University michigan state


    I also extend my thanks to the staff at Oxford University Press for their continued faith in this project. Jan Beatty, executive editor, has been dedicated to this project for over ten years. She regularly provided insightful, creative and intelligent guidance. Barbara Mathieu, Production Editor, carefully guided this complex project through the various stages of production. Thanks. . I am especially grateful to Debbie Nichols, musician and copy editor, who meticulously crafted every musical word and symbol into nearly 2,000 pages of dense manuscript and rewritten with an extraordinary eye for clarity, consistency, and correctness.

    I also want to express my deep gratitude to the Eastman School of Music, who have supported this project in countless ways. Douglas Lowry, dean of the Eastman School, and Jamal Rossi, senior associate dean of Eastman, were sources of inspiration.

    I express my deep gratitude to the Eastman faculty and students who played and sang the 20 recorded hours of musical examples with great ingenuity. At the center of the newly recorded examples were Catherine Cowdrick (soprano), Robert Swensen (tenor), David Brickman and Patricia Sunwoo (violin), Melissa Matson (viola), Margery Hwang (cello) and Diane Walsh (piano). Previous edition artists include:

    Antonova, Natalya Piano Boover, Alta Alto Arciola, Marissa Bass Brooks, Liz Mezzo Soprano Beaudry, Chris Bass Trombone Cheetham, Andy Trumpet Berkebile, Jennifer Mezzo Soprano Chen, Po Yao(Richard) Fagot Bezuidenhout, Kristian Piano, Clavichord, Choi, Hyunji Cello

    Forte-Piano Dawson, Andrea Violin Binkley, Jennifer Horn Franco, Allison Oboe Block, Christina Clarinet Fuller, Valerie Horn



    wide range of exercises including singing, writing, analyzing, listening and playing. The exercises progress from more passive writing, listening, and tactile activities (such as identifying, correcting, and comparing) to those that require active understanding (such as bass without figure, melody harmonizing, pattern composition), carefully organized so that the skills that students develop are based on mere identification. to substantive composition.

    Topics such as voice leading rules and use of harmonics are presented in order of importance so that students are never overwhelmed by endless rules or misled into thinking that all harmonies occur with the same frequency and are of equal importance. The emphasis on varied styles and genres illuminates the ways in which a small number of consistent harmonic and contrapuntal procedures are unchanging throughout the tonal tradition. To combat any misconception that tonal pieces are cut from the same musical fabric with a limited range of compositional possibilities, emphasis is placed on the motivic relationships that make a given work unique. Students learn that only through active study of the score can these musical processes be discovered.

    New in Third Edition Greater Accessibility, Flexibility, and Ease of Use Reorganized with Fewer Chapters Instead of 37 chapters in the previous edition, this edition has 31. The most frequently taught topics are presented in sequence, with fewer topics as an invertible counterpoint ( Chapter 15 in the previous edition), composed melody (Chapters 15 and 23 in the previous edition), and motive (Chapter 16 in the previous edition) have been moved to the Appendices, where instructors can access them when their curriculum allows or skip them altogether.

    Simplified throughout, I carefully examined each sentence of the text with the aim of simplifying the prose and seeing where I could best highlight the important points using lists. With the new organization and appendices, the body of text in this third edition is 200 pages shorter than in the previous edition.

    A New Introduction to the Fundamentals For the student with limited experience with the Fundamentals, there is a 75-page section in Appendix 1 that introduces key concepts and basic terminology. For the student with a more extensive background in foundations (and for those who have worked in the foundations section of the Appendix), the first three chapters present an overview and synthesis consisting of a concise (and higher-level) overview of the foundations that are combined with topics not presented in the fundamentals section of the Appendix. These topics include: musical accent, metric disturbances, consonance and dissonance, sample analysis, melody, two-part counterpoint, musical expression and texture.

    Additional Shorter Introductory Writing and Listening Exercises These introductory writing and listening exercises focus on writing and listening in shorter musical contexts. Examples can be seen in Chapters 6, 7, 17, 18 and 19. Longer and more complicated written exercises are now found in Workbook 1: Writing and Analysis. Icons in the margin (like the one shown here) refer to specific assignments in Workbook 1, each of which typically contains three or four assorted exercises.

  • 16th PREFACE

    More Notation Information Provided for Dictation Exercises To help students who need more input, I have added additional information to many of the exercises (including notation templates and guide tones). Solutions to selected exercises available in the Appendix Appendix 6 contains solutions to over 100 exercises in the text so that students have immediate feedback on their progress. Solved exercises are marked with a marginal annotation: Solved/Application 6. New "how to" sections. harmonic dictation, melodic writing, and analysis guidelines and procedures. Useful notations Numerous musical examples include guide notations, and I have also provided textural and structural reductions for more complex musical examples. An appendix that provides a list of abbreviations and acronyms

    Expanded coverage Over 250 new musical examples These examples include: sample analysis (e.g. the "Prelude" from Wagner's Tristan und Isolde), many new examples (e.g. Lohengrin, Coltrane's "Giant Steps") and Tasca) and larger analytical projects (for example, the last movement of Beethoven's Pathétique, Haydn's String Quartet, Op. 74, No. 3, and the last movement of Beethoven's Violin Sonata in D Major). New workout offerings include:

    Basic and easier additional exercises designed to prepare students for more complex compositions and bass exercises.

    Written exercises for specific topics such as finishing/composing melodies.

    More synthetic exercises that combine activities (Workbook 2: Skills and musicality).

    New listening exercises, such as correcting a notated melody, chord series or bassline based on what is heard (Exercise Workbook 2: Musicality and Skills).

    (Video) How to Instantly Convert an mp3 Audio File into Sheet Music for Free! AnthemScore and MuseScore!

    Much more singing, ranging from simple position location scale degree patterns to melodies from literature (Workbook 2: Musicality and Skills).

    New keyboard exercises, including simple (5-finger) harmonically oriented examples, external voice harmonic paradigms, and creative singing and performing activities (Workbook 2: Musicality and Skills).

    New Conceptual Themes These include the keyed half cadence (Chapter 18) and the sonata-rondo form (Chapter 27). The new Workbook 2: Skills and Musicianship skills component includes one- and two-part singing excerpts with over 300 melodies, 200 of which are taken from literature. These are arranged by harmonic device (for example, in the sixth augmented chapter, 12 examples contain this chord). Emphasis is placed on listening to melodies with a harmonic base. To that end, left-hand tones (including figured bass symbols in some cases) or chords are occasionally included to guide the student through singing and performing activities.


    More than 400 unpublished recordings of excerpts and complete works, which appear on the CDs that accompany the text and the handouts.

    New and Improved Handouts Significantly Reorganized Handouts While The Complete Musician still advocates a highly integrated presentation of theoretical, analytical, compositional, and musical activities, I have reorganized the handouts to give instructors more options to match their training plans.

    Workbook 1: Writing and Analysis is now dedicated to writing and analytical activities, including figured bass, melody harmonisation, pattern composition and analysis.

    Workbook 2: Skills and Musicality contains musical skills. The exercises within each chapter of Workbook 2 are organized by type of activity: singing arpeggios of the chord being studied and then a melody from the literature, singing in two parts, dictation, keyboard and instrumental application.

    More than 150 new literature extracts and complete works for analysis and dictation appear in the workbooks. This includes new instrumental combinations as well as broader and more accessible stylistic examples (eg Kreisler's Prelude and Allegro and a passage from Faure's Pavane).

    More analytical and notation space is included in both workbooks for students to provide answers.

    Recordings Included in Simplified Format About 4,500 musical examples are included in the books and handouts, many from common practice repertoire. More than 90 percent of these are high-quality mp3 files, which are burned to the CDs that accompany the text and each workbook. (All music is played, recorded and engineered at Eastman.) Having the mp3 files on a CD will allow students and instructors to easily locate the track they want to hear. (An icon appears in the margin of the text next to musical examples included on the CD.) sample solutions to over 250 writing exercises (eg, figured bass and melody harmonizing) and analytical exercises; and supplementary examples, exercises, and teaching guidelines detailing effective strategies for each chapter. A new companion website: This website contains companion writing and analysis exercises that focus on the fundamentals of each newly introduced concept. For example, substantial exercises in identifying triads and Roman numerals with varying spacing and textures will help single-line performers and singers develop crucial fluency in various musical settings.

    Terminology and Scope The Complete Musician intends to follow a neutral and hopefully ecumenical path. For example, no particular system is adopted for singing melodies. Students should employ any system used in the classroom, be it scales of note numbers, mobile or fixed music theory, etc. Whenever possible, I use


    commonly accepted terminology in the text. Occasionally, however, when I felt that current popular terminology was insufficient or vague, I have deviated from what is generally taught and added to it. For example, considerable attention is devoted to harmonic sequences, given their ubiquitous presence and crucial role in tonal music. In order for students to master the aural (and written) sequences, I have developed a naming system that captures both the general rise and fall of the sequences and the chord-to-chord fundamental intervals created by these movements.

    Another reason for occasionally deviating from conventional terminology stems from my desire to reveal the hierarchical processes of tonal music and model how we hear various harmonic movements. Therefore, the analytical method employed in TheComplete Musician involves considering the relative importance of a chord within a given musical context. For example, a dominant harmony that definitely leads to the tonic as part of a strong and authentic cadence is a different kind of dominant that occurs within a phrase and simply helps to connect the tonic and submediant, or one that occurs in the middle of a phrase. phrase. the cadence, but it doesn't actually move. for the next tonic. It may be more logical, then, to see such a dominant as referring to the initial tonic and therefore not moving the progression forward. By distinguishing between these functions, students should learn that analysis is a creative endeavor that engages their instincts and has implications for their own music production.

    Some topics commonly found in other theoretical texts are not included here, but are replaced by new pedagogical approaches. For example, ninth and eleventh chords are not discussed, as such voicings are often more apparent than real common practice music. On the other hand, themes such as two-voice counterpoint, invertible counterpoint, composed melody and interval motivic cells from the end of the 19th century receive detailed treatment, as they are crucial compositional procedures in the music of the 18th and 19th centuries. Knowledge of the application of these concepts will not only affect students' ability to hear harmony in time, it will also have a profound impact on how they play and sing.

    Acknowledgments I would like to thank my students and colleagues who have supported and guided me in creating this new edition. These include my Eastman colleagues Jonathan Dunsby and William Marvin and, for the many arguments for and against the existence of sonata-rondo form: Gordon Sly of Michigan State University. Thanks also to Michael Callahan for his work on the sample solutions. AnnDrinan graciously edited portions of the text, and Jennifer Gliered did a wonderful job designing the Instructor's Manual.

    I am grateful to the following reviewers, who produced more than a passing version of this new manuscript and provided solid theoretical and pedagogical advice:

    Reginald Bain, University of South Carolina Vincent Benitez, Pennsylvania State University Stefan Eckert, University of Northern Colorado Gretchen Foley, University of Nebraska-Lincoln


    Fulton, John Baritone Nulty, Dennis Tuba Gliere, JenniferSoprano Orlando, Courtney Violin Grandey, Ali Soprano Ou Yang,Angel Violin Hennings, Dieter Guitar Penneys, Rebecca PianoHermanson, Brian Clarinet Pritchard, Jillian Timpani Hileman, LynnBassoon Prosser, Doug Trumpet Jin, Min Tenor Qian, Jun ClarinetJorgensen, Michael Violin Salatino, Mark Trombone Karney, LauraOboe Salsbury, Josh Trombone Kellogg, Mark Bass Trombone Schneider,Nicolas Cello Kelly, Mike Tenor Schumacher, Tom Piano Kim, SophiaFlute Shaw, Brian Trumpet Kohfeld, Cheryl Viola Sheldrick, BraunwinViola Laitz , Madeleine Violin Shewan, Paul Trumpet Laitz, StevePiano Slominsky, Johnandrew Piano Lange, Amy Bassoon Sugitani, MuneBaritone Leung, Chun Chim Violin Traficante, Sara Flauta

    (David) Wensel, Ben Cello Liu, Liu Piano Widmer, John Trombone Manolov, Emanouil Violin Wilcox, Kathy Oboe Marks, Matt HornWinchell, Katie Flute Martin, Rob Violin Wood, Lindsey Horn MayumiMatzen Piano Zabenova, Ainur Violin

    Mike Farrington, recording engineer and supervising editor on all three editions, for nearly 10 years, has consistently done excellent work; he is a true artist. Thanks also to Helen Smith, director of Eastman Recording Services, for her help and support.

    I continue to thank Carl Schachter and the late Edward Aldwell for their artistic models of scholarship, musicianship, and pedagogy, which play an important role in the philosophical foundation of this book.

    Finally, to my wife of nearly 35 years, Anne-Marie Reynolds, and my incredible daughter, Madeleine, thank you for teaching me something every day.

  • PART 1


    Chapters 1 through 3 present a review and reorientation of important concepts and terminology related to tone and temporality.

    These chapters are especially designed for students who have had some introductory exposure to the fundamentals of music theory. This could include being able to play many types of scales or understanding basic concepts like intervals, triads or even seventh chords. Students who are new to fundamentals and who find the presentation of chapters 1-3 too short should follow the icons in the margins which will take them to specific solutions in Appendix 1, where they will find a comprehensive introduction to each of the fundamentals topics. basics along with substantial information. stick. These students may want to simply start with Appendix 1, working through these basic but crucial topics, and then return to Chapters 1-3 and explore topics not covered in Appendix 1. Finally, students who have some basic knowledge but can be a little rusty will also benefit from visiting Appendix 1.

    In Chapter 1, we considered the basics of pitch, meter, and rhythm. In Chapter 2, we discussed melody and two-part counterpoint. In Chapter 3, we explore harmony (triads and seventh chords), basic analysis, and texture.


  • 2


    Musical space and time

    Western music written during the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods (ca. 1650-ca. 1900) is called tonal music or music of the common practice period. The compositions written in these three centuries have a point of gravity, an explicit or implicit center around which all their heights revolve. This phenomenon is called tonality, and the gravitational center, a single tone (labeled with letters of the alphabet from A to G, plus several possible modifiers, including "flat", "sharp", "major" and "minor"), is Music with some sort of gravitational center has been around since ancient times and continues to flourish to this day in movie soundtracks, popular and commercial music, folk music, and jazz. Furthermore, music with a tonal center or other similar reference point can be found all over the world. In our studies here, however, we focus on the repertoire that emerged in Europe during the period of common practice.

    Tonality in Context: Bach Violin Partita no. 3, Prelude We will use the opening passage of Bach's Prelude from the Partita for Violin in E Major (Example 1.1) as a springboard to begin our studies. The purpose of this brief discussion is to connect some of the basic musical knowledge you already acquired in your singing and instrumental classes with specific instances of these terms and concepts. Listen to the passage and consider the following questions: What is the most important or prominent auditory tone in the sentence? How did you come to that decision?

    Basic criteria for determining a tone's importance include how often it appears, the degree to which other tones are attracted to it, and its prominence as part of musical gestures. You may have selected B as the most important tone because it occurred more often. Or maybe you chose E since you stood out aurally. In fact, the E often appears visibly right after the bar lines, which indicate the start and end of bars (mm); see Example 1.1. Tones that occur after measures play a special role in tonal music because they are accented. Accented music events stand out because they attract our attention. We'll examine a variety of ways composers create accents in their music.


    EXAMPLE 1.1 Bach, Violin Partita no. 3 in My Major, BWV 1006, Prelude

    One of the reasons our attention is drawn to an event is that it heralds something new or different, such as a change of pattern. However, too many changes in a short period of time can confuse the listener, so songwriters balance the new (contrast and movement) with the familiar (similarity and stability). Bach uses a variety of contours and melodic gestures: some fall while others rise; some comprise a series of jumps, while others have no jumps at all, and some gestures seem to go nowhere. When one of these melodic gestures ends and another begins, the change catches our attention. For example, Prelude starts with a release gesture. The next gesture, in mm. 3-6, is rhythmically and melodically repetitive. in mim 7, he begins an ascending gesture of two bars. The tones that initiate these changes are audibly distinguished from the surrounding tones and are therefore accentuated.

    The prominence of tone and melodic pattern may just be part of what you heard while listening to Bach's composition. You may have also noticed that some of the shades took longer than others. Longer tones often create a musical accent called agogic. (beat 1 in a measure of ~) are more accentuated than those occurring on weaker beats (beats 2 and 3). If we compare the overtones that occur between the beats with the overtones that occur within the beat, we notice that the E is again emphasized. When an accented duration (i.e., a longer pitch) and metric placement (i.e., a pitch that occurs in one beat) align, they create a particularly strong accent. These powerful accents help the listener to group musical events into intelligible units.

    If you combine rising, falling, or static contours with their temporal location, you'll notice that most bars start after a big jump in the musical line. Skips, such as longer durations and dynamic accents, hold our attention more when they occur on a downbeat. When two or more different types of accented musical events are coordinated, they create a powerful standard for measuring pitch prominence. With an eye on the score


    reveals that E is indeed the most important key, as it is a focal point of many types of musical accent. Furthermore, E, unlike any other tone in the passage, is able to invoke a sense of arrival and stability, a sense of "home" or "rest".

    Finally, you may have picked up a deeper, slower type of accent, characterized by longer melodic gestures. ), and can project one of the strongest types of musical emphasis. We can musically represent the earlier comments about the prominence of pitch, stress, and melodic contour in the annotated summary of Examples 1.2A and B. Example 1.2A shows the pitches that occur on each beat of each of the 12 bars. Legends group two-measure patterns together. Example 1.2B reveals the two types of melodic activity: sweeping gestures that fall (mp. 1-2) and rise (mp. 7-8) and more stationary gestures, which in turn are repeated to create larger groupings. (mm. 3-6 and mm.9-12).

    EXAMPLE 1.2 Bach Prelude, Accented Keys A.


    Clearly there is a hierarchy of pitch and meter in Bach's piece, and indeed hierarchy is a defining characteristic of tonal music. Since E is the most important key in the passage, we call it the tonic key. The only other prominent, albeit less important, tones that emerge in the above analysis are G# and B. As the remaining tones only occur in melodic gestures and simply function as the glue connecting E to its satellites G# and B, they are less important in a hierarchy.

    Pitch Mastery Specifics We have seen that the important principles of tonal music include pitch prominence, musical emphasis, melodic contour, and hierarchy. Now let's explore the basic elements of the world of tones. In the second half of the chapter, we turn our attention to the components and procedures of the temporal world.


    Tones and Tone Classes APPENDIX 1 A tone is a tone generated by a vibrating body, whether a

    strummed violin string or the air moving the reed of a clarinet. The speed of regularly repeating vibrations, called frequency, determines the pitch. The faster the vibrations, the higher the pitch, and the slower the vibrations, the lower the pitch. If the frequency of one tone is twice that of another tone (or in a 2:1 ratio), then the two tones are one octave apart. Because tones that are an octave apart sound very similar, we give these tones the same letter name (chosen from A through G) with an octave designation. Example 1.3 shows a common way of describing notes: each note is assigned an octave number, with new octave numbers starting on each subsequent C. The lowest C on the piano is "C1", the next is "C2", and so on, with each higher octave increasing by a number.

    EXAMPLE 1.3 Pitch and octave assignments

    " " "

    me me : : :

    I I I I I I I I I I I I I Pitch class refers to all pitches with the same letter name. Therefore, the

    The notes in example 1.4 are in the "E" note class, but they are E4, E5, and E6 notes. In this text, we will generally refer to a note by its note class designation, unless it is necessary to distinguish notes by octave number.

    EXAMPLE 1.4 Tom vs. tom class

    APPENDIX 1 Tones that sound the same but have different names are enharmonically equivalent. For example, in Example 1.5, we see that F# and G~ are enharmonically equivalent. F# and G~ are different notes and, as we'll see, they have different functions, but they sound the same on the piano.

    1See Appendix 1A for a more detailed discussion of the changes.


    EXAMPLE 1.5 Enharmonically Equivalent Tons

    Scales APPENDIX 1 Listen to the opening of Mozart's well-known Piano Sonata in C major

    (Example 1.6). Taking inventory of the tone-class content of the passage, we see in c. 1 Cs, Es, and Gs. in i 2, Ds, Fs and Bs enter the picture; in me 3, A is the only new tone class. If we sort this collection alphabetically, we get A, B, C, D, E, F, G. In fact, a content review of the rest of the example reveals that no new classes of tones are produced. We mean a collection of seven notes where each letter name is used once as a diatonic collection. Diatonic, or "across the tones", also means that the major octave is divided equally into seven steps (repeating the first step to make the octave). We refer to the staggered arrangement of the diatonic collection as a scale, from the Italian scala or "ladder". Note that the ascending and descending scales start to the right of m. 5.

    EXAMPLE 1.6 Mozart, Piano Sonata in C Major, K. 545, Allegro

    Although these seven tones circulate freely throughout the example, Mozart has arranged his music in such a way that certain tones seem more stable than others. The passage starts in C, and there are resting points where C is clearly present: at the end of bars. 2 and 4 and in m. 8. It also appears that other keys are strongly attracted to C, such as B in comp. 2. Finally, still other tones seem to be associated with C, and they also have their own power to attract tones, like Gs and Es in comp. 1; The in me. 3 is strongly attracted by the following G, while Fin m. 4 is pulled to E (see the arrows in Example 1.6). As we discovered earlier, when notes are arranged hierarchically in a diatonic scale and one note is higher and more stable than all


    Others this effect is called tint. Since Ci is the most important key in Example 1.6, we emphasize this by starting the scale with C and saying that Ci is the tonic of the extract.

    The seven members of a scale can be numbered in ascending order as scale degrees (Example 1.7). Distinguished by a circumflex accent placed above the number, scale degree numbers are also identified by names that reflect their relationship to the central tone of the scale, the tonic. The next most important members of the scale are the dominant (four degrees, or a perfect fifth, above the tonic) and the median (halfway between the tonic and the dominant). The subdominant (four degrees below the tonic) derives its name from the fact that it is as far below the tonic as the dominant is above the tonic. The submediant, two steps below the tonic, is halfway between the tonic and the subdominant. The supertonic is one notch above the tonic and the main tone is one notch below the tonic.

    EXAMPLE 1.7 The Major Scale


    We will focus on two specific types of scales, the major scale and the minor scale, each of which is distinguished by the way its seven different pitches are arranged within the octave. Major scales contain the same pattern of semitones (or "semitones", which are adjacent keys on a piano keyboard) and whole steps (or "steps", which consist of two semitones or semitones). The default for major scales is W-W-H-W-W-W-H. Example 1.7 is an example of a C major scale.

    Minor scales differ from major scales mainly by scale degree 3, which is one semitone below the major scale.

    EXAMPLE 1.8 Mozart, Piano Sonata in A minor, K. 310, Allegromaestoso

    The diatonic collection in Example 1.8 contains the following pitch classes: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G#. Clearly, A is the tonic, established by the major key (G#), the prominence of A in the texture, and, as in major, the dominant (E) and median (C) as important accompanies of A. The difference in the color of the tone in this scale versus the major scale can largely be attributed to the different


    semitone and semitone arrangement from tonic to dominant: The major scale is patterned W-W-H-W, while the minor scale is patterned W-H-W-W (Example 1.9).

    EXAMPLE 1.9 The minor scale


    The other distinguishing feature between major and minor scales occurs at the top of the minor scale, namely the 6th and 7th degrees of the scale, which are variable, with three common variations (Example 1.9). In its natural form, a minor scale sits on the 6th and 7th degrees of the scale; the 7th degree of the lowered scale is called the subtonic, as it no longer acts as a tone leading to the tonic. Two other common minor scale forms raise the 6th and/or 7th scale degrees to produce a rising line that approaches the tonic; however, there is no distinction between variations in practice; are all forms of the same minor scale.

    In harmonic minor form, the 7th degree of the scale is raised to create a major tone that is half a step below the tonic. Example 1.9 illustrates harmonic minor: the arrows show how the G# major key pulls to the tonic and the F submediant doesn't go up, so it pulls down to E.

    In the melodic minor form, the 6th and 7th scale steps rise to attract the tonic; the same scale degrees are not raised in a descending line, to pull down towards the dominant.

    Keys Key signatures convey the note classes of the natural major and minor scales. Example 1.10 summarizes the number and names of sharps and flats in major and minor keys. Adjacent keys (for example, G major and D major) are separated by a perfect fifth.

    Major and minor keys with the same tonic (for example, C major and C minor) are parallel. Major and minor keys with the same key signatures are relative. Example 1.11 illustrates the pairing of relative major and minor keys around the circle of fifths.


    EXAMPLE 1.10 Sharps and flats in major and minor keys


    C# A# 7 sharps F# D# 6 sharps B# 5 sharps E# 4 sharps A f# 3 sharps D b 2 sharps G E 1 sharp ~c A 0

    F d 1 flat B~ g 2 flats E~ c 3 flats A~ f 4 flats D~ b~ 5 flats G~ e~ 6 flats c~ a~ 7 flats

    EXAMPLE 1.11 Major and Minor Relative Keys

    NOTEBOOK 1 1.1


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    F#C#G#D#A#E#B# F#C#G#D#A#E# F#C#G#D#A# F#C#G#D# F#C#G# F#C#F#

    B~ B~E~ B~E~ A~ B~E~ A~D~

    B~E~A~D~G~ B~ E~ A~ D~ G~ C~

    B~E~ A~D~G~C~~

  • 10

    Example solution:



    Label the scale degree numbers on each exercise. Then transpose it to the implicit key in the given key. Note: the key given will be the first key of the fragment, but like the fragment it may not necessarily be the tonic.

    For example, given the fragment D-G-A-B-FII-G and the first tone of the transposed version (B~), you would do the following:

    1. Study the melody to determine the key. The sample solution is in G major.

    2. Label the melodic scale degrees (5-i-2-3-7-i). 3. Transfers the scale degree number of the first tone of the original

    melody to the given new key, as this will be the first key of the transposed version. As the first key of the original melody is D, which works like 5 in G, then the given B will also work like 5, but now in the key of E major (Bi>-Ei>-F-G-D-E~).

    When transposing by fifths, use the circle of fifths to guide you. RESOLVED / APPLICATION 6



    D. Mozart, Piano Sonata in C Major, K. 545, Allegro


    E. Mozart, Sinfonia Concertante in E major, K. 364, Andante


    F. Schumann, "The Forsaken Maiden", Op. 64, No. 2

    G. Bach, French Suite in C minor, BWV 814, Sarabande

    H. Beethoven, Symphony no. 3 in E major, Op. 55, Marcia Funebre



    1.2 Determine the implied major or minor key in short melodic fragments and label each key using scale degree numbers. Then, using accidentals (not a key signature), transpose each example to the implied key in the given starting key.

    1.3 Determine the major and minor scales that contain the following three- and four-tone fragments. For example, given the tones F-G-A, there are at least six tones that contain these tones (three major and three relative minor, shown by ligatures). Note: consider all minor scale forms.

  • 12



    1.4 The minor scales in Examples A-D contain tuning errors. On a separate sheet of manuscript paper, write down each scale correctly, then transpose the scale one step up.


    A. melodic minor C. natural minor

    B. minor harmonic D. minor harmonic

    Determine the starting key for the extract, and bracket new major key areas as they occur. Start by looking for accidentals, as they imply a new tonal area. This method will reduce the 12 possible keys to just one, or at most two. For example, if you find two sharps, F-sharp and C-sharp, you will know that the major scale/key is D, as D major contains two sharps (check the circle of fifths if necessary). Then, on a separate sheet, list the scales in ascending order and in the order in which they appear.

    A. Schumann, "Tu voz", op. 96, No. 3

    B. After Haydn, Scherzando, Piano Sonata in C sharp minor, Hob XVI.36RESOLVED/APP 6

    C. After Mozart, Andante, Violin Sonata in A major, K. 402

    D. After Haydn, Symphony no. 38 inC top, glass ceramic 1.38 RESOLVED/APP6


    Intervals APPENDIX 1 The distance between two throws is an interval. Ranges are usually labeled

    with an ordinal number representing the number of letter names spanning the two notes. For example, the distance from C to F is a quarter, as there are four letter names that go from C to F (C, D, E, F). The distance from E to G is one sixth (E, D, C, B, A, G). (Another way to calculate intervals is by counting semitones: Cup through F is five semitones, and E through G is nine semitones.)

    Intervals up to an octave are simple (see Example 1.12). Intervals greater than an octave are composite. Compound intervals are often shortened to their simple counterparts. Although C3 to G5 is a nineteenth, we are referring to the interval between their pitch classes: C to G is a fifth.

    EXAMPLE 1.12 Simple Intervals

    APPENDIX 1 The ranges we've seen so far are generic in that they just label the distance traveled by letters of height. C to E is a third, but also C-E~, 0--E, 0-E#, Cii-E#, C1j, -E#, etc. To distinguish the quality of a range, we use a specific size. We group the intervals into two basic categories: unison, fourth, fifth and octave are perfect intervals (P) and we subtract the major (M)/minor (m) intervals. Each note in a major scale, when measured above the tonic, creates a perfect or major interval (Example 1.13).

    EXAMPLE 1.13 Specific intervals above the tonic in the major scale

    APPENDIX 1 Larger gaps can be transformed into other gap qualities by increasing or decreasing the gap size. Raising a major interval by a half step results in an augmented interval (A). Decreasing a major interval by one semitone results in a minor interval; further decreasing the interval by another half step results in a decrease in interval (d) (Example 1.14A). Perfect intervals can also be transformed into augmented and diminished intervals (Example 1.14B). Thus, major, minor, and perfect intervals can be augmented or diminished (except unison, which can only be augmented). However, major and minor intervals can never become perfect, and perfect intervals can never become major or minor.


    EXAMPLE 1.14


    A. Transformation of major and minor intervals (2, 3, 6, 7)

    B. Transformation of perfect intervals (1, 4, 5, 8)

    When we move the lowest note of a single range above the highest note, or move the highest note below the lowest note, we invert the range. Example 1.15A shows what happens when we invert generic ranges; Example 1.15B does the same for the quality of an interval. The arrows represent the investment process. Note the following:

    The investment process can move in any direction. Inverting generic intervals always adds up to 9. Perfect intervals retain their quality when inverted. However, the quality is changed by increased/decreased and major/minor intervals. The number of semitones between inversely related intervals always adds up to 12. Example 1.15C shows the resulting pattern.

    EXAMPLE 1.15 Range Reversal

    A. B. Unison Generic Interval Inversion ~ 8th (1 + 8 = 9) 2nd ~ 7th (2 + 7 = 9) 3rd ~ 6th (3 + 6 = 9)

    fourth ~ fifth (4 + 5 = 9)

    Perfect quality ~ perfect augmented ~ diminished major ~ minor

  • C.

    EXAMPLE 1.16


    Enharmonic intervals Just as there are enharmonic tones, there are also enharmonic intervals. For example, the minor third from C to E~ sounds identical to the augmented second from Cup to D# (see Example 1.16A; dotted ligatures indicate enharmonic tones). Interval notation depends entirely on the musical context. For example, one would expect to find many instances of the C-E~ minor third in any number of major and minor keys that contain flats because the interval is diatonic in these keys. However, the most unusual C# augmented second would occur only in the E minor scale and only if its harmonic form were used (Example 1.16B).

    Consonant and dissonant intervals When you compare the sound of an octave to that of a seventh, the octave seems stable and firmly seated, without the need to move to a more stable interval. Rather, the seventh seems active, unstable and even tense, as if looking for something to resolve its inherent discontent. At least since the ancient Greeks, Western musicians have felt that intervals of different sizes evoke certain feelings, ranging from pleasant stability to restless longing. These musicians also discovered that the same interval in two different musical contexts can be perceived as stable or unstable.

    For example, Example 1.17 presents the C-F perfect fourth in four different contexts. Listen to each one and order the examples from most stable to least stable. If you heard D and the first chord in E as the most stable and C as the least stable (with B and the second chord in E somewhere in between), you were sensitive to the fact that the stability and instability of the interval are highly determined by interval, musical context.


    EXAMPLE 1.17 Interval and Context Stability

    EXAMPLE 1.18

    NOTEBOOK 1 1.2

    Although we generally think of interval stability and instability as being on a continuum, we can place all intervals into one of two categories. Stable intervals, including the diatonic forms of the unison, third, fifth (perfect only), sixth, and octave, are called consonant intervals; Wobbly intervals are called dissonant intervals. Dissonant intervals include the second, seventh, and all diminished and augmented intervals. The perfect fourth is often seen as a dissonant interval, although, as we saw in Example 1.17, it can be stable depending on the context in which it appears.

    The five consonant intervals are divided into two types. Perfect consonances are the most stable and include perfect unison, perfect octave and perfect fifth. Imperfect consonances include major and minor thirds and sixths, which are moderately stable but more fluid than perfect consonances. Imperfect consonances are critical to moving the music forward. Example 1.18 summarizes the types of intervals. Composers create movement in their music by cycling through various types of intervals; for example, from perfect and imperfect consonances to dissonances and vice versa.

    Perfect consonant intervals: P1, PS, P8 imperfect: M3, m3, M6, m6

    Dissonant intervals all forms of 2nd, 4th and 7th augmented and diminished intervals








    Write down the interval needed throughout each step taken. Transpose each interval a major third down and a minor third up as written.

    Given the following series of intervals, write down the notes, starting at the given pitch. You will create a melody that you probably know. The arrows indicate the direction of the range. Once you recognize the melody, add the appropriate key signature. Finally, transpose each pitch a major third using two methods. The first method is by degree of scale (for example, if you are in D major and you are in the key of A, you know that it is 5 in D. so you would be on the F# key and 5 in F# is C#). The second method is by interval (for example, given the key A in the key of D, the key a major third above A is C#).



    SOLVED/APP 6 1.8 A. Identify the following gaps when increasing your size by one

    halftone without changing its generic name (for example, a major second would become an augmented second, not a minor third). 1.M32. M2 3. P4 4. M6 5. d3 6. m7

    B. Identify the following intervals by decreasing their size by a half tone without changing their generic name. 1. m2 2. PS3. A2 4.M6 5.A4 6.A3

    C. Identify the following intervals by increasing their length by two semitones without changing their generic name. 1. m2 2. d33. dS

    D. Identify the following intervals when their size is decreased by two semitones without changing their generic name. 1.M6 2.AS3. A2 4M3

    1.9 Label the following intervals as they would occur in the shades provided. You will need to write down the key signature of each key. An uppercase key name indicates the main mode; a lowercase key name indicates secondary mode. The first exercise is solved for you: inf# minor, there is a G# and G# to B is a minor third.



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    1.10 Identify the range of each pair of circled tones, label their inversion, and specify whether the range is perfect consonance (PC), imperfect consonance (IC), or dissonance (DISS).

    1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

    PC/IC/DISS Interval Inversion

    The Metric Realm Undifferentiated, equally spaced clicks or taps are called beats. A series of identical pulses is not grouped into larger units, but remains an indistinguishable stream that simply marks the passage of time. When beats are differentiated by emphasis, they become accented beats and unaccented beats. Meter refers to the grouping of stressed and unstressed beats into recurring patterns. There are three basic types of gauges:

    double (strong-weak, strong-weak, strong-weak, etc.) triple (strong-weak-weak, strong-weak-weak, strong-weak-weak, etc.) quadruple (very strong-weak-strong-weak , very strong-weak-strong-weak, etc.)

  • 20



    Meter Signature Beat division refers to the equal division of time into two or three parts. Simple measures have beats divided into two parts, and compound measures have beats divided into three parts.

    Composers indicate the number of beats in a measure, the rhythmic value assigned to the beat, and the time division in the measure signature. For single measures, the top number in the time signature indicates the number of beats in a measure, and the bottom number reflects the rhythmic value that equals one beat.

    Top number = 2, 3, or 4 beat numbers per measure

    Bottom number = rhythmic value that equals one beat

    2=J 4=~ 8 =) 16 = ~ and so on

    Meter signatures do not have numbers representing dotted note values. Since the beat in compound measures equals a dotted note, time signatures cannot reflect the beats in a measure. Instead, time signatures display information about time divisions: the top number indicates the number of time divisions in a measure, and the bottom number represents the rhythmic value that equals one time division.

    Top number = number of beat divisions per measure

    Bottom number = rhythmic value that equals a division of time

    6 = 6 time divisions or 2 dotted beats per measure 9 = 9 time divisions or 3 dotted beats per measure

    12 = 12 time divisions, or 4 dotted beats per measure

    2 = time division is J, and o. is equal to one time 4 =division of time is~, and J is equal to one time 8 =division of time is), and J is equal to one time

    16 = division of time is ~, y). is equal to a heartbeat and so on

    Asymmetric meters In the vast majority of common practice music, the number of beats per measure depends on multiples of 2 or 3 (for example, ~, 1l, t t y~). Sometimes, however, composers write in asymmetric meters, which are defined in two ways:

    1. as measures whose number of beats is not divisible by 2 or 3 (like ~ and ~) 2. as measures whose number of beats combines 2 and 3 (like

    ~0, created from 2 + 3 + 3 + 2).


    In moderate to fast tempos, these meters are usually played so that the combination of 2 and 3 creates bigger beats of different lengths. For example, at a fast pace, ~ would sit (and lead) at 2; that is, a combination of a 2 and a 3, or 2 + 3 or 3 + 2. Composers who use such signatures usually indicate in their time signatures the way they want the long beats to be grouped; for example, the common time signature of ~ combines the dotted quarter note divisions into three equal groups of 3s. However, a composer may want to divide the beats asymmetrically, such as 2 + 3 + 2 + 2.

    Eastern European and Balkan folk music makes constant use of these asymmetric meters. The opening of the Greek folk song in Example 1.19 is presented in the asymmetric meter of ~ Often, the meter signature of asymmetric meters clarifies the recurring patterns within each measure. The repeating pattern in the melody shown in Example 1.19 looks like a combination of ~ and ~ (although you might also hear the pattern as 3 + 2 + 2).

    EXAMPLE 1.19 Greek folk song

    Clarifying the time signature It would be frustrating to identify the time signature if rhythmic durations were not organized into logical groups that clearly indicated the number of beats in each measure and their divisions. Rhythmic symbols should visually organize the unit of time for the performer. For example, the ~ meter three-stroke units in example 1.20A are not visually clear because there is no grouping of beats. In Example 1.20B, however, the grouping is clarified by adding beams, which are horizontal lines connecting two or more marked notes (ie eighth notes or any combination of shorter rhythmic values). The number of beams corresponds to the number of flags; therefore, one beam will connect two eighth notes, two beams will connect two sixteenth notes, and so on.

    EXAMPLE 1.20 Beams to clarify simple gauge



    Example 1.21A presents an example of a composite gauge without clustered beams. Again, the three underlying beats are difficult to discern, but adding the longer measure and note values ​​in Example 1.21B instantly reveals the three beats within each measure. Beams are usually not connected between beats; each beat starts with a new beam to clear the beat.


    EXAMPLE 1.21 Make to clean the composite meter

    However, in vocal music beams were often used differently. Instead of highlighting the meter, the beams connected two or more tones that were supposed to be sung in a single syllable. Therefore, the tones and their rhythms were, for the most part, separate from each other. This older convention, which has only recently been superseded by the regular radiating tradition found in instrumental music, makes it difficult to perceive rhythmic patterns and their placement within and between beats. Notice in Example 1.22 from Berlioz's L'Enfance du Christ how difficult it is to group the beats in a single recitative measure (Example 1.22A). The reworked version of Example 1.22B makes it much easier to negotiate rhythms.

    EXAMPLE 1.22 Berlioz, I.:En.fance du Christ, recitative of the Father, scene 2

    Always try to clarify the placement and grouping of each beat within a measure, avoiding long durations or points that could obscure the natural groupings that connect rhythms between beats. Example 1.23A shows a sample of incorrectly notated rhythms; Example 1.23B clarifies the notation.


    EXAMPLE 1.23 Rhythmic and Metric Correspondence

    heartbeat unit:


    heartbeat unit:


    heartbeat unit:


    A. Incorrect B. Correct

    More rhythmic procedures Normally, the division of the unit of time in simple meters is by 2 and in compound meters by 3. However, composers often import the 3 from the compound into the simple and the 2 from the simple into the compound. These borrowed splits allow for considerably more rhythmic flexibility.

    Taken from compound meter, divisions of three notes are called triplets. Triplets can occur not only in the primary division of the beat (see Example 1.24A), but also in the subdivision (for example, as sixteenth-note triplets in !). Triplets also occur on two or more beats. Example 1.24B illustrates various types of triplets in ! . Measure 1 contains an eighth note triplet, which occurs within one beat unit and therefore is at the time division level. Bar 2, with its sixteenth-note triplet, illustrates triplets in subdivision (that is, within an eighth-note division). The triplets are illustrated in mm. 3-4: The triplet occurs first at the half-measure level and then at the half-measure level.

    EXAMPLE 1.24 Borrowed Divisions

    A. Brahms, "On Eternal Love", op. 43, No. 1


    B. Various types of triplets

    Likewise, though not as commonly, the two-note splits found in simple time are imported into compound time. These doublets, like triplets, can occur within time divisions and subdivisions, as well as span more than one time unit (Example 1.25).

    EXAMPLE 1.25 Schumann, "Shlummerlied", album cover, op.124

    Less common divisions, called irregular divisions, include fives (called quintuplets) and sevens (septuplets). The most borrowed and irregular divisions are shown with a square bracket that groups the note values ​​and the appropriate number into which the beat is divided. Example 1.26 illustrates various types of divisions in front of its very clear and constant dotted eighth note pattern in the accompaniment of this piece. in me 138, an eight-tone (eightfold) right-hand figure is juxtaposed with a three-tone bass figure, followed two bars later by a double bass quintuple. in me 141, septuplets occur, followed by more standard sixteenth-note triplets. Finally, on me. 145, the quadruplets appear against the three tones of the bass.

    EXAMPLE 1.26 Chopin, Nocturne in B major, op. 9, no. 3

  • EXAMPLE 1.27


    Composers, especially in the 19th century, were fond of presenting double and triple time divisions simultaneously, their juxtaposition lending remarkable fluidity, if not metric confusion, to a piece. Chopin, Schumann and Brahms are three of the many composers who used this procedure. In Example 1.27A, Chopin translated his study into the simple double meter of ~' with the natural division of the beat into two parts (note the eighth notes in the left hand). However, superimposed on this two-part structure are the triplets (marked on the right hand). This rhythm game is called two against three. Finally, composers often go so far as to intentionally write patterns that span one meter; therefore, each hand is written in a different meter. Chopin's waltz A_l clearly features a left hand in simple triple time, with two eighth notes for each quarter note, as one might expect from a well-behaved waltz (Example 1.27B). However, the right hand is modeled in the double time signature of ~', whose two beats and 3's make a very strange pairing with the left hand.

    A. Chopin, Etude in A major, op. correspondence

    B. Chopin, Vals en la mayor, op. 42

    accent in music

    HANDBOOK 1 1.3-1.4

    Our brief exploration of the Bach Prelude (Example 1.1) illustrated several ways to create a musical accent, including metric placement and pattern changes. Now, let's explore this important topic in more detail. In general terms, we define musical accent as a musical event that is marked to consciousness so as to attract the listener's attention. The ways in which composers mark events are diverse, but generally they all start with a single purpose: to frustrate the listener's expectations. This can be done simply by changing an established pattern. In fact, pattern changes create an accent that surprises us and draws attention. Accents can occur not only in the domains of tempo (rhythm and meter) and pitch (melody and harmony), but also in the areas of dynamics, register, and texture.


    The Time Accent Meter appears when pulses are grouped into recurring patterns of accented and unaccented beats. These accented beats are called metric accents because they occur at important points in a metric unit (for example, a beat or a measure). A pickup is an unaccented musical event that leads to an accented musical event. The upbeat is often called an upbeat because a conductor's baton will be rising, in anticipation of the approaching metric accent. The next downbeat, the first beat with a metric accent and the strongest beat in a measure, occurs when the conductor's baton is in the lowest position of the conducting pattern. Metric accents provide the basis and standard by which we consider other types of accents, both temporal and non-temporal.

    Rhythmic accents occur all over the surface of a piece of music and take many forms, the most important of which arises from rhythmic duration: a long note tends to sound sharp. These durational (or agogic) accents often coincide with metric accents to support the prevailing meter. Since longer notes are accented, they are usually followed rather than preceded by notes with shorter durations. That is, when a beat (or other metric unit) is divided, a long-short division is more likely to occur than a short-long division.

    Example 1.28 illustrates: The first example (A) follows the typical "long-short" durational pattern, while the second (B) reverses the pattern, putting shorter durations before longer ones. Clap your hands at each example to see how the first one is easier to perform and sounds more natural. Like metric accents, durational accents occur at different levels. They occur not only in beats, but also in other beats (for example, the third beat of measure 2 of example 1.28A) and even within beats (the comma-eighth-sixteenth rhythm is more common than its reverse ).

    EXAMPLE 1.28 Durational accents

    A. Long-Short Term

    B. Short and long durations

    Non-Temporal Accents Any non-temporal element in music has the potential to create accents. We will examine six common types of non-temporal accents, all of which arise from a single source pattern shift: harmonic shift and register, articulatory, textural, contour, and tonal accents.

    The harmonic shift creates a powerful accent. Listen to the opening of Chopin's Waltz in A minor, in which a different chord appears in each measure (Example 1.29). Note that the metric accent on beat 1 is


    accompanied by a different bass note in each measure (A-D-G-C); the chords on beats 2 and 3 complete the harmonies implied in the bass tones. Metric accents are shown with the accent sign (>) above the treble staff.

    EXAMPLE 1.29 Chopin, Waltz in A minor, BI 150

    Composers often balance the accent created by harmonic change with a constant pattern in the rate of harmonic change. (The speed at which harmonics change is called harmonic rhythm, an important theme we explore throughout this text.) Once the speed of harmonic change is established, a composer generally continues this pattern. Furthermore, the changes are often in line with the metric accents, as we saw in Chopin's waltz.

    Since a change of pattern creates an accent, let's see what happens when we modify the Chopin waltz slightly (Example 1.30 contains two recompositions). Example 1.30A begins like the original, with harmonic changes once per measure. However, here the low G and its harmony in comp. 3 continue to m. 4, interrupting the established pattern of one harmonic change per measure and thus marking the effect for consciousness and creating an accent. Example 1.30B does the opposite: instead of extending the G harmony by two measures, it shortens it with the premature appearance of Charmony. The question marks accompanying the rhythmic patterns indicate the metrical confusion that arises from breaking the harmonic rhythmic pattern.

    EXAMPLE 1.30 Chopin, waltz in A minor (modified)




    You may have noticed the strong left-hand accent that occurred on beat 1 of each measure and that lined up well with the metric accent, but wondered how that accent is created on beats 2 and 3, which consistently contain three times as many overtones, they remain unaccented. These register accents occur because the low notes of the first beat occur in a lower register than the rest of the left hand notes, making them bold. Crash records are very powerful and when they are not lined up with the gauge or when there is a pattern change they are even more noticeable. Example 1.31 sets the registration accents to mm.1-2 and then deviates, with accents occurring instead of marked beats. The low tone followed by a single chord creates groups of two beats that run through the triple bar.

    EXAMPLE 1.31 Chopin, waltz in A minor (modified)

    Register accents can occur in any register. In fact, accents registered in a high register often seem to be more pronounced than accents in a low register, because their frequency (rate of vibration) is faster and they sound brighter than tones with slower frequencies. Registered accents are often heightened with articulatory (or phenomenal) accents, which include changes in dynamics (gradual and immediate, such as sforzandi) and various types of articulation, such as staccato/legato, pizzicato, dragging, tenuto, and ornamentation (such as trills). . , twisting and biting).

    Beethoven was fond of these accents, as illustrated in his "Tempest" sonata (Example 1.32), where the sforzandi (marked sf and meaning a strong accent) appear in the middle of the bar and are attacked by the left hand, which dramatically crosses into the right hand. Note that register accents actually start at m. 21, where the left-hand sustained bass D3 initiates the passage. An ascending line is created with the left-hand registration accents: D goes up to E (m. 25) and then to F (m. 29). Note that the articulatory accents (i.e. the sforzandi in the upper register after bar 30) are of the same pitch class, but move twice as fast as the left hand (spanning two bars instead of four).

    EXAMPLE 1.32 Beethoven, Piano Sonata in D minor, op. 31, no. 2, "Storm"


    For the most part, the mood, overall length, accompanying figures, and overall number and character of voices (often referred to as pitch) remain constant over long passages of a piece or even throughout a piece, throughout the entire piece. We refer to the combination of these elements as musical texture. A texture accent, then, involves a change in the overall pattern of a piece and can be quite impressive. Indeed, entire periods of style, such as the Baroque, are based on creating music that supports a single mood, or affect, which is largely created by a consistent, unchanging texture. For example, Bach's Prelude in C Minor (Example 1.33) is a study in fast sixteenth notes that are relegated to the same register and melodic pattern (Example 1.33A). Thus, when the texture changes dramatically to a more improvised, one-line, register-roaming cadence near the end of the piece, the created accent certainly catches the listener's attention (Example 1.33B).


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    EXAMPLE 1.33 Bach, Prelude in C minor, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1A.


    From the Classical period onwards, composers filled their works with textural accents, often between sections, as in Schubert's song "Der Lindenbaum", where the melancholy major mode, soft dynamic level and relaxing accompaniment give way to the stormy section. in the minor parallel. (Example 1.34).

    EXAMPLE 1.34 Schubert, "The Linden", de Winte'eise


    Finally, texture changes and the accents they create can be very subtle, as in the opening of Mozart's piano sonata in F major (Example 1.35). The smooth rocking accompaniment supports a rising melody, but in comp. 5 the melody drops, with no help from the accompaniment. This change in texture is intensified when the left hand abandons its accompanying role and imitates the right hand in the m's falling gesture. 7. In m. 9 both hands are together. Finally, on me. 12 another new texture appears, as all the voices participate in the same rhythmic gestures. These texture changes are not whimsical but carefully planned and occur every four measures.

    EXAMPLE 1.35 Mozart, Piano Sonata in F Major, K. 332, Allegro

    The Mozart passage illustrates two additional non-temporal accents. The first type involves the melody, specifically its form, which is created by changes in melodic direction. These shapes are part of the contour of a melody, and changes in the melodic contour create contour accents. They can be quite obvious (as in the general ascending line at mm 1-3 which is followed by the descending contour at mm 5-8, represented by arrows) or very subtle (as in


    the descending scalar line in m. 10, which changes direction on the strong beat of comp. eleven). Like most accents, contour accents generally align with metric accents.

    Finally, when you first heard the 1.35 example, you might have been impressed by the E~4 in comp. 2, although it was produced as part of the predominant eighth note pattern, on a weak beat and hidden within the texture. The accent on this single tone is called the pitch accent. Such accents arise when one or more tones are perceived as unstable. These on-trend tones are accentuated because they are alien to the tonal environment that immediately surrounds them; the term dissonant refers to musical events that are unstable in one or more respects. Pitch accents can occur in stressed or unstressed metric contexts. Compare the effect of the unstressed E ~ 4 in Mozart's F major sonata with the strongly tonic unprepared DIP that opens his A minor sonata (Example 1.36).

    EXAMPLE 1.36 Mozart, Piano Sonata in A minor, K. 310, Allegromaestoso

    Syncope of Metric Disturbances Longer durations, which are inherently stressed, are usually coordinated with stressed beats or stressed parts of beats, and shorter durations usually occur on weak beats or weak parts of beats. Composers often invert this pattern and, while continuing the established meter, challenge it with a new and conflicting accent. This phenomenon, in which a musical accent occurs on a non-accented beat or part of a beat, is called syncope. Example 1.37 presents two examples in which a sequence of pulses or a series of regularly repeated accents occurs out of time.

    EXAMPLE 1.37 Syncope

    A. Mozart, Sinfonia in G minor, K. 183, Allegro con brio


    B. Mozart, Concerto for piano in D minor, K. 466, Allegro

    Syncopation is a mainstay of popular and commercial music, an example appears in Example 1.38, which contains accents not only in the time unit, but also within the time unit. Note that the left hand is regular and lines up with the natural accented pattern of !: The lower note of the two notes, marked by a registered accent, occurs on the metrically strong first and third beats. This steady left hand provides the meter grid over which the right hand and vocal line float happily, highlighting the fanciful lyrics.

    Syncopation already appears in the first vocal emission: "Say" occurs in a weak part of the division of the first beat, and its quarter note value crosses the accented part of the second beat. The same situation is heard in the second half of the bar, an octave higher. Articulative accents intensify the right hand of the piano part. The horizontal bars, called tenutomarks, indicate that the note below should be sustained at its full value, and also imply an accent; notice that these accents occur on the weak parts of the beats. Likewise, staccato marks, which shorten notes and thus weaken accents, occur in stressed parts of beats. Finally, notice how the semi-strong third beat weakens in mm. 2 and 3, as they appear as tied notes.

    EXAMPLE 1.38 Arlen, "It's Just a Paper Moon"


    Hemiola Another important type of metric disorder, closely related to syncope, is hemiola. In a hemiola, the established meter is temporarily displaced by a concurrent meter. Occurs most often when a dual metric is imposed on a triple metric. To create this effect, accents are placed every second beat instead of every third beat, either by literal accents, double durations, or one or more of the non-temporal beats. Accenting techniques such as harmonic accent, dynamic accent or register accent.

    In example 1.39A, the hemiola is created by articulatory stresses: regular placement on each alternating quarter note creates a double stress pattern, effectively weakening, if not overcoming, the triple pattern. Only in the penultimate measure is the triple pattern restored. In example 1.39B, the hemiole appears through the duration accents.

    EXAMPLE 1.39 Hemiola

    A. Hemiola by surface elements

    B. Hemiola of Dual Durations

    Let's look briefly at the opening of Mozart's Menuetto from Eine kleine Nachtmusik, which contains a clear example of hemiola (Example 1.40). The first five bars of Mozart's eight-bar phrase unfold as expected. The downbeat of each measure is very stressed and the next two beats are quite weak. Groups of three beats behave as indicated by the time signature. But in the last three measures, something happens: the surface gesture changes with the figure of the trill that occurs first on beat 2 and then on beat 1, giving a strange feeling to the triple measure. Now we feel clusters of 2. Instead of 1 2 3 I 1 2 3 I 1 ... , we feel 1 2 1 I 2 1 2 I 1. On a deeper level, hemiola often transforms a noticed meter by a factor of two. Below the passage marked with ~, a slower moving ~ meter is displayed. Hemiola usually occurs in the approach of a final cadence, especially in the Baroque period. As an event marked to the conscience, it heralds the approach of closure, providing a welcome relief from consistent texture and avoiding musical articulations.


    EJEMPLO 1.40 Mozart, A Little Night Music, K. 525, "Menuetto"

    """~ --'






    "!" EU

    1---------------------- 1-------------- i l1 2 3111 2 31112 3111 2 3 ll1 2 3 ll1 2 ll1 2 1112l~

    tr tr ;. # it- :J!:

    --- .fl. .. ---..;;---

    ---.. --- .fl. ~~.fl. .;;;--;.. --- ..

    tr tr.......,. -- ..

    I I '-""' ~ I I

    # .. /.- .. --- - ..-.. .fl.


    yo yo yo ;. .fl.~ ..

    me me me me

    I i i i APOSTILLA 1 1.5-1.6



    1.11 SOLVED/APP 6 Match a rhythm from column X with one from column Y that has the same total

    duration. Use all options in the AND column (i.e. avoid duplicating any answers). The first example in column X is complete for you.

    X y

  • 36





    Enter a single duration that is equivalent to the notes and/or rests in each of the provided patterns. Please note: an answer requires the use of double periods.

    1.13 The following examples have neither meter nor bar lines. However, given meter groupings and other musical cues (melodic repetition, etc.), you should be able to determine the meter and add bar lines.

    A. William F. Sherwin, Day Is Dying in the West (versão 1)

    B. Bach, Prelude in minor, from Six Little Preludes, BWV938


    C. Bach, Prelude in A minor, BWV 865, Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I

    D. Bach, "Have mercy, Lord, on me", My God, St. Matthew Passion, No. 39, BWV244


    E. William F. Sherwin, Day Is Dying in the West (versão 2)




    The examples shown, all taken from Chopin waltzes, contain various types of accents. Find and label at least one example of each accent type. Your options are: Duration, Harmonic, Register, Articulative, Texture, Contour, and Tone. Are these accents coordinated with the metric accents?

    A. Waltz in B minor, op. mail 69, no. two



    B. Waltz in D major, op. 64, no. 1


    C. Valsa in Minor, Bl


    D. Waltz in A major, op. 64, no. 3


    1.15 Write a single duration that is equivalent to the combined durations of the given patterns.



    agogic accidental time signature chromatic line, chromatic system, chromatic scale chromatic alteration circle of fifths common practice period enharmonic diatonic equivalence frequency range: halftone and whole tone; diatonic and chromatic semitones tonality tonality clef major scale minor scales:

    natural, harmonic and melodic mode, major and minor parallel key major and minor parallel key, pitch class registration relative scale major and minor scale names and degree numbers pitch staff, pitch center, tonic pitch transposition


    durational, metric, non-temporal rhythm:

    articulatory, contour, dynamic, harmonic, tone, register, textural accent vs. unaccented annacrus 1s slash line beam time borrowed divisions (doublets, triplets, irregulars) common time, cutoff time (short high) hard beat, upbeat harmonic rhythm hemiolameasure



    meter: simple versus compound simple double, simple triple, simple quadruple; double compound, triple compound, asymmetrical quadruple compound

    metric signature musical pattern phrasing legato pulse strong and weak rhythm syncopation tempo tie

    TERMS AND CONCEPTS FOR INTERVALS Climax chromatic and diatonic semitones, compound melodic intervals and simple movement consonances in conjunction and disjunction: perfect versus imperfect diatonic intervals dissonance, dissonant intervals enharmonic intervals generic versus specific intervals; interval quality harmonic versus melodic interval types of interval: augmented, diminished, major, minor, and perfect intervals consonance versus dissonance interval inversion interval recovery tendency law tritone tones

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