Management - Organizational Behavior chap. 5 (2023)

Organizational Behavior, version 1.1

Bauer and Erdoğan

FWK test object file

Chapter 5

1.Motivation is a function of the interaction of performance, ability and environment.


2.Job security is an example of Maslow's need for security.


3.Alderfer's existential needs correspond to Maslow's physiological and security needs.


4.The frustration regression hypothesis proposed by Alderfer suggests that individuals who are frustrated in their attempts to satisfy one need will return to another.


5.Salary is a motivator in Herzberg's two-factor theory.


6.Hygiene factors are part of the work context.


7.The lack of hygiene factors in the work environment leads to worker dissatisfaction.


8.People with high performance needs may neglect managerial tasks such as coaching as a waste of time.


9.A great need for power is always a destructive element in the workplace.


10Process-based theories view motivation as a rational process.


11One way to deal with perceived injustice is to reduce your own contributions.


12Justice theory suggests that those who perceive inequality can respond to the situation by making the referent reduce inputs.


13People who are over-rewarded feel a great deal of guilt and increase their efforts to restore their sense of fairness.


14Donors expect substantial compensation for a relatively small contribution.


fifteen.You worked very hard on your essay and were very proud to get an A for it. Then you found out that anyone who wrote ten pages or more got an A, and now you're pissed. They experience a high degree of distributive justice.


sixteen.An effective way to achieve procedural fairness is to give employees a voice in decision-making.


17A high level of fairness creates a higher level of employee engagement.


18People who perceive themselves as fair recognize that what they perceive to be fair may differ from what others perceive to be fair.


19The instrumentality dimension of expectancy theory refers to the extent to which effort is believed to lead to achievement.


20To affect instrumentality, make sure the rewards are seen as desirable.


21The expectancy theory is a needs-oriented theory.


22The phenomenon "the folly of rewarding A while expecting B" suggests that people are sometimes rewarded for the wrong behavior.


23Reinforcement theory is based on behavioral and operant conditioning.


24To reduce the frequency of negative behaviors, remove the rewards that followed those unwanted behaviors.


25Extinction increases the frequency of desirable behaviors.


26Using the extinction approach to getting a colleague to stop making inappropriate jokes during their conversations means ignoring the jokes instead of laughing at them.


27Giving an associate a sales commission on every sale is an example of a continuous reinforcement program.


28Michael needs to discipline one of his employees. Before you do this, you need to make sure that the punishment you are imposing is commensurate with the crime.


29Motivation is culturally based.


30Being among the highest paid workers in retail is the only reason Trader Joe's employees are so motivated.


Opening Case: A Motivating Workplace: The Case of Zappos

31An analysis of Zappo's success with Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation would suggest this

a.contextual factors such as B. To be among the highest paid employees in retail

Industry, are the only reason for the company's success.

b.Content factors, such as the collaborative atmosphere created by each individual employee, are the sole reason for the company's success.

C.Growth needs such as autonomy in customer service are the sole reason for the company's success.

d.Context, content and growth needs factors all contribute to Trader Joe's success.


Part I: Need-Oriented Motivation Theories

32.Maslow's physiological needs can be met by:


b.feel safe

C.important feelings.

d.human bonds.


33.How could a company better meet an employee's need for security?

a.Enroll the employee in a Microsoft Office training course.

b.Host an employee appreciation luncheon.

C.Develop a weekly staff bowling league.

d.Create a job security clause in the employment contract.


34.appreciation is

a.the need to connect with other people.

b.the desire to form lasting bonds.

C.The desire to feel important.

d.the freedom of an uncertain future.


35.One way to meet the needs of self-actualization is

a.Earn a master's degree through a company's tuition reimbursement program.

b.Have a meal with colleagues from your department once a month.

C.Receive a $100 suggestion bonus from your company for a labor-saving tip you enter in your department's suggestion box.

d.received an award for employee of the week.


36.Maslow's theory of motivation suggests this

a.The needs of the employees are classified.

b.Employee needs are divided into three categories.

C.Employee needs fall into the categories of motivation and hygiene.

d.Employee needs are acquired as a result of life experiences.


37.Maslow's hierarchy of need theory of motivation

a.proposes that once basic needs are satisfied, higher order needs become motivators.

b.enjoys strong research support.

C.It is a systematic approach that allows managers to explain employees' similar needs at a given point in time and employees' similar responses to similar treatment.

d.It was developed based on Maslow's observations of individual employees in a variety of work environments.


38.The collaborative work environment at Trader Joe's meets which of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?




39.The simple premise of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is

a.more than one human need is at work at the same time.

b.The aspects of the work environment that make people happy are very different from the aspects that make them dissatisfied.

C.People acquire three types of needs through life experience.

d.People have needs that are arranged hierarchically.


40Maslow's theory of motivation has been criticized because

(Video) Organizational Behavior Chapter 5

a.Research does not support the argument that satisfied needs no longer motivate behavior.

b.His "frustration regression" hypothesis has no practical implications for the workplace.

C.the research methodology used does not fully account for the attribution of causes to the individual or situation.

d.Extensive empirical research has shown little practical application of the theory.


41.Maslow's social needs could thus be satisfied

a.received an award for employee of the month. promoted from a supervisory position to deputy general manager.

C.Attend a department picnic after work.

d.take a course in Microsoft Office.


42.Which of the following needs identified by Maslow could your paycheck be likely to fill?

a.psychological needs.

b.needs appreciation. needs.

d.All of the above.


43.Alderfer's existential needs correspond to Maslow's.

a.societal needs.

b.needs appreciation.

C.needs for self-actualization. needs.


44.Alderfer's growth needs match Maslow's.

a.societal needs. needs.

C.needs appreciation.

d.psychological needs.


45.By comparing Maslow's hierarchy of needs with Alderfer's ERG theory

a.The ERG theory recognizes that more than one need can be at work at the same time.

b.Maslow's theory recognizes that more than one need can be at work at the same time.

C.The ERG theory is based on observations of people in clinical settings.

d.Maslow's theory suggests that when individuals become frustrated in their attempts to meet one need, they may return to another.


46.Alderfer's theory of motivation does all of the following EXCEPT

a.Relaxation of the basic assumptions of Maslow's theory of needs

b.assume that needs are hierarchical

C.propose a "frustration regression" hypothesis

d.Assume that needs fall into three categories


47.According to the ERG theory, when a person is frustrated with the growth opportunities of their work,

a.You can only fall back on relationship needs. can only go back to the necessities of existence. may revert to relational or existential needs.

d.You are motivated by the next higher need in your hierarchy of needs.


48.What is not a hygiene factor in Herzberg's theory of motivation?

a.working conditions

b.salary policy



49.Which of the following statements is a hygiene factor in Herzberg's theory of motivation?

a.advertising opportunities.

b.interesting work.




50All of the following are critical of Herzberg's theory of motivation EXCEPT

a.The primary research methodology of the study is flawed.

b.classifying factors as hygienic or motivational is not easy.

C.The payment can be symbolic as it signals that the employee is progressing within the company.

d.The theory suggests that improving the environment in motivating employees only goes so far.


51.Which of the following statements is true?

a.The need for achievement can be a destructive element in relationships with colleagues.

b.Especially with regard to the implementation of appraisal interviews, a high need for belonging is a real advantage in management positions.

C.A high need for power is a characteristic of successful salespeople.

d.Need for power can take an altruistic form.


52.People with high connection requirements

a.You want to influence others.

b.You have a strong need to succeed.

C.Desire to influence the organization.

d.wants to be accepted by others.


53.Abdul tends to emphasize harmonious interpersonal relationships, prefers to be with friends and enjoys family events. Abdul would likely be categorized as a being

a.low power requirement.

b.Great need for commitment.

C.heavily in need of electricity.

d.Low connection requirement.


54.Which job is best suited for someone with a high need for commitment?





55.Michele is being considered for an executive position at Halliburton. Complete a TAT as part of a Test Center exercise for prospective leaders. Moderators will carefully review the results for the decisions of their managers knowing this

a.People with high performance needs may have difficulty delegating authority to their subordinates.

b.People who have high attachment needs are particularly effective at providing critical feedback to employees.

C.People with a high need for power have a hard time disciplining underachievers.

d.Individuals with high performance requirements are particularly effective in training and in conversation with their subordinates.


56.Which of the following statements is a process-based motivation theory?

a.Teoría ERG de Alderfer.

b.Herzberg's two-factor theory.

C.Skinner's Reinforcement Theory.

d.McClelland's theory of acquired needs.


57.Which of the following needs-based theories has received the most support?

a.Herzberg's two-factor theory

b.Maslow's hierarchy of needs

C.Teoría ERG de Alderfer

d.McClelland's theory of acquired needs


Section II: Theories based on processes

58.Chloe and Francois are graphic designers at Highland Lithographics. Both have the same job description. Earlier this month, Chloe found out that Francois makes $12.50 an hour while she makes $11.00. Which motivational theory best explains why Chloe went to her boss to complain about the pay gap?

a.ERG Theory


C.expectancy theory

d.reinforcement theory


59.Ramone feels he was unfairly passed over for a promotion at his company. How could you deal with the perceived inequality?

a.Let the referrer delete the entries.

b.Maintain current perception of referrer inputs.

C.Increase your tickets.

d.Increase your results.


60All of the following are actions that those who perceive inequality can take to “balance the scales,” EXCEPT


(Video) Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 05 - Motivation

b.being late for work.


d.produce better quality work.


61.Studies on equity theory suggest this

a.Those who perceive injustice increase their work performance.

b.those who feel over-rewarded feel little distressed by the situation.

C.Those who feel over-rewarded feel guilty about the situation.

d.those who perceive inequality encourage their peers to work less.


62.Individuals who expect annual raises without showing better performance may be labeled



C.pretty insensitive.

d.sensitive to expectations.


63.Research on procedural fairness suggests so

a.It is best to prevent employees from commenting on potential changes to company procedures, such as B. performance appraisals, because they do not understand the decision-making process anyway.

b.It's better to announce unexpected department-wide layoffs because when employees suspect changes to their job status are coming, they tend to be a lot less productive.

C.It is best to be consistent in how employees are penalized for violating company policies in situations such as cell phone use.

d.It's best to send an announcement of changes to the company's benefits package for the upcoming fiscal year without explanatory details, as employees don't understand the financial implications anyway.


64.Interactional justice is

a.the degree to which the results obtained by the organization are perceived as fair.

b.the degree to which fair decision-making processes are used to reach a decision.

C.the extent to which people are treated with respect, kindness and dignity in interpersonal interactions.

d.the belief that high effort leads to high performance.


Sixty-five.Nejah reads a report on employees' perceptions of fairness. The article makes all of the following EXCEPT

a.A higher level of fairness creates a higher level of organizational citizenship.

b.A high level of fairness creates a higher level of employee engagement with the organization.

C.A higher level of fairness leads to higher customer satisfaction.

d.A high level of fairness leads to support for unionisation.


66.Joaquín received the Chancellor's Prize and an $8,000 grant for a research paper he produced and a formal presentation. He believes he worked hard for the article and the presentation. Joaquín would have a feeling of

a.high level of interaction justice.

b.high interpersonal justice.

C.high distributive justice.

d.high procedural fairness.


67.If you want to be perceived as a fair person, follow this advice:

a."People are selfish, they only care about their own justice."

b.“Treat everyone equally when handing out rewards. Differentiation in rewards often leads to injustice."

C."Make your own decisions, you're the boss. Because you are responsible for making those decisions, you don't have to waste time listening to everyone's opinions.”

d."Think before you speak. Be considerate of others."


68.Michael has two final exams, Accounting and Organizational Behaviour, on the same day of final exam week. Based on expectancy theory, which of the following statements suggest how you should allocate your limited study time?

a.For the three previous OB exams, Michael studied for hours and received subpar grades. He spent fewer hours studying accounting and got above-average grades. Therefore, she decides to focus her efforts equally on midwifery and accounting.

b.Accounting is Michael's major, OB is a general business requirement in his academic program. Michael aspires to be a chartered accountant, so he decides to focus his college years on accounting.

C.After this semester, Michael will change to another university to study communication sciences. Your economics courses will not count towards your overall performance at the new university. Your scores on these exams don't matter, but you decide to focus on your bookkeeping anyway.

d.Michael loved the group work format his OB teacher used to deliver the class and disliked the lecture format his accounting professor used. He decides to turn his attention to OB.


69.You work for your university's annual alumni fund. During his entire employment, he makes an average of 25 phone calls in a three-hour shift. Your manager is now asking you to increase that number to 40 calls per three-hour shift. You feel you don't have the skills or time to make 40 calls; that's an unrealistic goal. According to expectation theory, you experience

a.low expectation

b.low instrumentality

C.low valency

d.low equity


70.Which of the following statements about how managers can influence perceptions of expectancy theory is correct?

a.People with an internal locus of control and high self-esteem believe there is little connection between their effort and their performance, so a lot of feedback is needed to motivate them.

b.Regardless of the grade given in a performance review, make sure everyone gets a small annual raise.

C.Recognize good work with profitable items like coffee mugs and t-shirts.

d.Survey employees regularly to determine what they consider a reward for performance and incorporate this into the performance appraisal program in some way.


71.In expectation theory is valence

a.the perception that high levels of effort lead to interesting outcomes such as achievement.

b.the perception that performance is related to later outcomes such as rewards.

C.the expected satisfaction that will result from an outcome.

d.the extent to which people are treated with respect, kindness and dignity.


72.To influence the instrumentality, managers can

a.Make sure the environment facilitates performance.

b.Give your employees the ability to choose rewards.

C.Reward top performers consistently.

d.Encourage people to believe that their efforts make a difference.


73.Steve Kerr's phenomenon, "the folly of rewarding A while waiting for B" is demonstrated by

a.a manager who failed to acknowledge an employee who stayed out of work for a week to fill out a report for a sick colleague.

b.A manager who fears his best salesperson will leave if he criticizes him for being 15 minutes late every day.

C.A manager who promotes a subordinate who is known for his tendency to argue with colleagues so that the subordinate can be transferred to another department where a person has just retired.

d.Rewarding a manager who orders a shipment of defectively manufactured parts to be released in order to meet a deadline, despite the company's well-known commitment to quality.


74.negative reinforcement

a.reduces the desired behavior.

b.Reduces the frequency of negative behavior.

C.reinforces the desired behavior.

d.Reduces the frequency of unwanted behaviors.


75.positive reinforcement

a.reduces the desired behavior.

b.Reduces the frequency of negative behavior.

C.reinforces the desired behavior.

d.Reduces the frequency of unwanted behaviors.


76.An example of extinction is

a.scolding an employee for calling a customer.

b.suspend an employee for being late for three days in a row.

C.Commend an employee for a well-written report.

d.ignore a colleague telling dirty jokes.


77.When reinforcers follow all examples of positive behavior, use __________ ___________ reinforcement.

a.variable ratio

b.equity ratio

C.Continuous Hours

d.parties Tariff plan


78.Praising the employee from time to time when they are on time is an example of reinforcing __________________.

a.variable ratio

b.equity ratio

C.Continuous Hours

d.parties Tariff plan


79.All of the following are tips for making disciplining an employee more effective EXCEPT

a.Discipline when you have time.

b.Be consistent in dealing with employees.

C.Determine if punishment is the effective way to change behavior.

d.document behavior.


80.Which of the following statements is NOT an effective approach to disciplining employees?

a.Carrots can be more effective than sticks.

b.Unfair punishment must not change the undesirable behavior.

C.No two employees or incidents are the same, so no two employees should be disciplined in the same way.

d.Discipline is not the most effective way to change behavior over the long term.

(Video) OB Chapter 5 - Personality


81.The first step in a program to change organizational behavior is

a.evaluate and maintain.

b.Identify the behavior to change.

C.Analyze the history and outcomes of the behavior.

d.Measure reference level.


82.If the organizational behavior change is used to investigate employee absence, which step analyzes why employees are absent?

a.Step 5: Evaluate and maintain.

b.Step 1: Identify the behavior to change.

C.Step 3: Analyze the history and outcomes of the behavior.

d.Step 2: Measure the reference level.


83.Which of the following statements is a needs-oriented motivation theory?

a.expectancy theory.

b.ERG Theory.

C.reinforcement theory.



Section III: The role of ethics and national culture

84.In simulations examining whether reinforcement theory explains ethical behavior, all of the following findings are EXCEPT

a.The subjects cut back bribes less when threatened with punishment.

b.Subjects were more likely to continue paying bribes if they made a profit after providing the bribes.

C.The perceived likelihood of punishment is an important influence on ethical behavior.

d.The severity of the expected punishment was the most important predictor of whether subjects were prone to behaving unethically.


85.Motivation research suggests the following:

a.Ethical behavior is learned behavior.

b.Satisfaction of social needs is a strong motivator in industrialized countries.

C.Subjects from different cultures do not differ in their reward distribution, regardless of the subject's age.

d.An appreciation of justice and fairness is a distinctive value unique to Americans.


86.Which of the following summary statements about motivation theories is true?

a.Needs-based motivational theories use the thought processes of employees to understand employee motivation.

b.Research shows that what is perceived as fair and unfair is culturally defined.

C.Research shows that because of perceived injustice in their environment, people stop repeating behaviors that lead to positive outcomes.

d.Process-based theories suggest that managers need to recognize what employees need and make the work environment a means to meet those needs.


87.This is shown by motivation research in different cultures

a.High power distance cultures value having a voice in the judicial process.

b.Chinese study participants attach great importance to procedural fairness.

C.Justice is not culture specific; All cultures use this method to achieve justice.

d.In the industrialized world, the satisfaction of esteem needs was a stronger motivator than the satisfaction of physiological or safety needs.


Opening Case: Motivation in Action: The Case of Trader Joe

88.An analysis of Trader Joe's success using Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation would suggest this

a.contextual factors such as B. To be among the highest paid employees in retail

Industry, are the only reason for the company's success.

b.Content factors like the collaborative environment in each supermarket are the sole reason for the company's success.

C.Needs for growth, such as autonomy in opening products for customer samples, are the sole reason for the company's success.

d.Context, content and growth needs factors all contribute to Trader Joe's success.


89.The ability is

a.having the resources, information and support needed to perform well.

b.They have the skills and knowledge required to do the job.

C.the intention to achieve a goal, leading to goal-directed behavior.

d.the role of performance, motivation and environment.


90.Which of the following statements about motivation is correct?

a.Being motivated is the same as performing well.

b.Motivation is the only reason people perform well.

C.Motivation is a key factor influencing the performance of an employee.

d.Motivation is often the most critical factor in a person's performance.


91.The motive is

a.They have the skills and knowledge required to do the job.

b.depending on performance, capacity and environment.

C.the intention to achieve a goal, leading to goal-directed behavior.

d.the only key to high performance.


92.Which of the following statements is correct?

a.Achievement is a function of the interplay of motivation, ability and environment.

b.Motivation is a function of the interplay of ability, environment, and performance.

C.Ability is a function of the interplay of motivation, performance and environment.

d.Achievement has a major impact on motivation, skills and environment.



93.Job performance is a function of the interaction between a person's _______, ability, and ___________.

(motivation, environment)

94.Marcus enthusiastically uses his company's tuition reimbursement program to pursue a college degree. Marcus meets his needs ____________.


95.Antonio has a strong belief in meeting the needs of __________ his subordinates. Therefore, whenever one of your employees does an excellent job on a project, bring the entire department together to officially recognize the individual's achievement.


96.For most employees, ___________________ meets their physiological needs.


97.Social needs are as important to Maslow as _______________ was to Alderfer.


98._______________ organizes needs in a hierarchy.

(Maslow's Theory of Motivation)

99Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation suggests that factors that are part of the context in which work is performed are called _______ factors.


100.Herzberg's _______ factors include company policy, supervision, working conditions, safety and compensation.


101.Li Cho takes part in a study in which, after looking at a picture, he writes a story describing the person in the picture, what they are doing and why. Li Cho uses a __________ _________ _________ to assess motivational issues.

(Thematic apperception test)

102.According to McClelland's theory, people who focus on goals and deadlines have a _________ _____ ___________.

(need for performance)

103.Clarissa emphasizes frequent and harmonious interpersonal relationships. Clarissa has a big __________ _________ ______.

(Need for affiliation)

104.______________ Motivation theories view motivation as a rational process.

(based on processes)

105.Mary and Jan are two graphic designers at Master Graphics. They were hired at the same time with the same basic qualifications. According to equity theory, Jan Marys is ________ or comparator.


106.In justice theory, a person's _______/_____ is compared to the same ratio of a referent.


107.Nina experiences feelings of injustice; she can address the situation with ____________ results.


108._________ ________ is a personality trait that explains different responses to inequality.

(stock sensitivity)

109.Monica was hired as an entry-level accountant. She found out the company decided to hire her after learning her mother was also an accountant. Monica probably doesn't feel fair _________________.


110.___________ ________ is the degree to which the results obtained by the organization are perceived to be fair.

(distributive justice)

111.You just got a promotion that after all your hard work you have earned. They perceive high __________ _____________.

(distributive justice)

112.___________ are those who expect substantial compensation for a small contribution.


113.The perception that a high level of effort leads to achievement is referred to as __________.


114.Mario ensures that his subordinates find the rewards offered by the company desirable. Mario tries to influence the _________ element of expectancy theory.


115.The degree to which employees believe their performance will lead to rewards is referred to as _____________.

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116.____________ is based on the work of Ivan Pavlov on behavioral conditioning and B.F. Skinner on operant conditioning.

(reinforcement theory)

117.The teacher commends the student for an excellent PowerPoint presentation. The teacher practices _________ ___________ so that the student gets it right in the next lecture.

(positive reinforcement)

118.XYZ Corporation just announced a new bonus program where "on site" managers can award bonuses for exceptional work done on the day. XYZ proposes to offer bonuses on a _____________ _____________ schedule.

(variable ratio)

119.Justice and expectancy theories are examples of motivational theories based on ________.


120.The ERG theory is related to _______ ________ motivational theories as the equity theory is related to ________ ______ motivational theories.

(demand-oriented, process-oriented)

121.Of the needs-based theories mentioned in the text, the _________ ________ __________ theory has received the most support.

(McClelland Acquired Needs)

122.Research suggests that low power distance cultures value __________ more than high power/distance cultures.



123.Describe how motivation drives employee performance.

Job performance is a function of the interaction between a person's motivation, skills, and environment. Motivation, the intention to achieve a goal, helps a person to strive for a specific task. However, motivation is not enough to drive peak performance and it is not the primary reason people perform well, but it does have a significant impact on performance.

124.Compare and contrast Maslow's hierarchy of needs with Alderfer's ERG theory.

Both Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Alderfer's ERG theory are needs-oriented theories.

Maslow proposes that there are five basic human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs, arranged in a hierarchy. When a need is satisfied, the next need in the hierarchy drives the behavior.

Alderfer modifies Maslow's theory by proposing that there are three needs: existence, relationship, and growth. These needs are not ordered hierarchically, but grouped into categories. Consequently, Alderfer suggests that more than one need can be active at any one time. Alderfer also proposes a "frustration regression hypothesis" in his theory. The hypothesis suggests that individuals who are frustrated when trying to satisfy one need may return to another.

125.List each need in the Maslow hierarchy and give an example of how a company might try to meet them.

Physiological needs relate to food, water and shelter. A company could meet each of these needs by paying an employee.

Safety needs are met when one is free from danger, pain, or uncertainty. Again, pay would be an example of meeting these needs, as the paycheck would allow the employee to purchase items to avoid danger (a car instead of walking down a busy freeway).

Social needs are those of belonging to a group or of being loved. Businesses could start a golf league, take their employees to dinner over the holidays, or host summer picnics to meet that need.

Appreciation needs are those where you want the respect of others and want to feel important. A program where employees are formally recognized for good work, such as The “Employee of the Month” award, for example, would fill this need.

Self-actualization needs are those in which an employee "wants to be all they can be." Offering your employees a tuition reimbursement program would help fill this need.

126.Describe how Herzberg's hygiene and motivational factors differ, and give an example of each.

Hygiene factors are part of the context of a workplace. An employee often overlooks your presence, but your absence creates a feeling of dissatisfaction in the employee. For example, if the working conditions in a workplace are reasonable (relatively clean, warm, and dry), employees tend not to notice. However, if the air conditioning fails in the summer, employees will complain a lot about the heat. Other examples of hygiene factors include: company policy, oversight and relationships, salary and safety.

Motivators are part of the work content and inherent to the job. Examples are: achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibility and promotion. When these conditions are not found at work, the worker is somewhat neutral; However, if the conditions are created by a manager, for example, they can motivate an employee to perform at their best.

127.What are some of the key characteristics of individuals identified by a thematic apperception test with high performance needs? In which occupations do people with high performance requirements do well?

People with a high need to meet deadlines, generate great ideas, and generally strive to be successful in their job. Consequently, they find success in careers such as scientists, entrepreneurs, salespeople, and engineers.

128.You perceive inequality in a situation. Describe the responses equity theory proposes to change perceptions.

When injustice is perceived, a person may change their perception of their own or the speaker's inputs and outputs. For example, you could minimize your own posts, rate them higher, and skew other's posts or their results. You can also have your entries increased by the referrer. However, a third alternative is that you reduce your inputs or increase your results. Finally, you could change your comparison person (the referrer) or leave the situation altogether.

129.Define distributive, procedural, and interactive justice and note how they are related.

Distributive equity is the degree to which the results obtained by the organization are perceived to be fair. Procedural fairness refers to the extent to which fair decision-making processes are used to reach a decision. Finally, Interactional Justice is the degree to which people are treated with respect, kindness, and dignity in interpersonal interactions. The three concepts interact with each other and with each other. In summary, all three types of justice provide an opportunity for an employee to obtain a fair outcome that was rendered based on a fair decision and awarded to the employee in a respectful and courteous manner. Employers benefit from addressing all three types of equity.

130.Describe how research suggests that an employee achieves procedural fairness.

Research suggests the following ways to achieve procedural fairness: inform employees in advance, give them a say in decision-making, provide explanations for all decisions, and treat all employees consistently.

131.According to expectancy theory, what are the three questions that individuals ask themselves when evaluating a situation?

Will my effort lead to peak performance?

Does performance lead to results?

Do I find the results desirable?

132.List two ways managers can influence employee expectations.

If employees feel they do not have sufficient skills to complete a task, the manager may want to ensure they receive training.

For example, if employees do not believe that effort leads to achievement because of political behavior in the workplace, the manager must ensure that the connection between the two is made clear.

Finally, many employees have low self-esteem or external control points that make them believe their efforts will never make a difference.

133.List two ways managers can influence employees' perceptions of instrumentality.

First, the connection between salary and performance must be clear. Announcing rewards such as bonuses and performance awards is a first step towards this understanding.

The manager must also make it clear that performance, and only performance, is rewarded.

134.List two ways managers can influence employees' perceptions of value.

First, the manager must ensure that the rewards are attractive to employees. Therefore, the manager must know the needs, wants and desires of the employees. The manager should then monitor the information periodically to see if there have been any changes. Finally, the manager must ensure that employees have a choice between rewards.

135.What does the phenomenon referred to as “the folly of rewarding A while waiting for B” mean?

The statement means that people are sometimes rewarded for wrong behavior. For example, a company may make public statements about its high quality products. However, under pressure to get products to customers, they often send out poor quality items. Managers need to be aware of the consequences of such actions.

136.Name and define each of the four reinforcement methods and give an example of each.

Positive reinforcement is a method of reinforcing desired behaviors. An example of this would be an employee praising the good treatment of a customer during a complaint call from that customer.

Negative reinforcement is also a method to reinforce desired behaviors. Here, removing the unpleasant consequences causes the desired behavior to occur. For example, teenagers often clean their rooms just to keep their parents from nagging them.

Extinction is used to reduce the frequency of negative behaviors. When rewards are removed after negative behavior, continued removal leads to cessation of the behavior. Employees who constantly make fun of their co-workers will stop behaving when those comments are ignored.

Punishment shows negative consequences after undesirable behavior. If you are repeatedly late for work, you may be given a three-day disciplinary suspension.

137.How would a fixed and variable rate schedule be used in a workplace?

With a fixed-price program, rewards are provided each time the correct behavior is shown. For example, a seller can earn a bonus for every tenth sale they make.

A variable rate plan is boosted in a random pattern. For example, on occasion, a manager may very rarely praise his employees.

138.Identify the stages of organizational behavior change.

1.Identify the behavior to change.

2.Measure the reference level.

3.Analyze your background and your results.


5.Evaluate and maintain.

139.Briefly describe how needs-based and process-based motivational theories are useful for organizations.

Needs-based theories help a manager identify what needs to motivate people and help make the work environment a place where those needs are met. Maslow's hierarchy, Alderfer's ERG, and McClelland's theories of acquired needs are key to identifying such needs.

Process theories analyze the mental processes of employees that are decisive for driving behavior. Equity, expectation, and reinforcement theories are useful in designing reward systems for an organization. Together, the two theories help make a workplace productive for both the company and its employees.

140.Describe how reinforcement theory was successful in explaining ethical behavior.

The theories help managers understand how employees behave unethically. Process theories such as reinforcement suggest that people behave unethically when those unethical behaviors are rewarded. Needs-based theories help the manager understand what are the basic needs and desires of employees that drive behavior.

141.Give an example of how motivation is culturally bound.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is one such theory, which is culturally bound. For example, financial satisfaction is a stronger indicator of overall life satisfaction in developing countries. In contrast, esteem needs are a stronger motivator for developed countries.

142.List two tips a manager could use to make the disciplining process more effective.

Consider whether punishment is the most effective way to change behavior.

Make sure the punishment matches the crime.

Be consistent in dealing with employees.

Document the behavior in question.

Be punctual in discipline.


143.Using Maslow's hierarchy of needs or Alderfer's ERG theory, describe why Trader Joe's employees provide such great customer service.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs presents needs in a hierarchical order, beginning with physiological needs and then progressing to safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. The theory suggests that once a need is satisfied, it no longer motivates behavior and the next higher need becomes the driving force of the behavior. Trader Joe's serves the safety and physical needs of its employees as one of the highest-paid retailers in the industry, with an average annual income of $40,150 per full-time employee. The atmosphere in the store, where the employees are happy to represent each other and eagerly meet the needs of the customers, goes a long way towards meeting the social and appreciative needs of the employees. Quarterly performance reviews facilitate career opportunities for employees, as does the autonomy that many positions afford. Finally, Trader Joe's training opportunities support self-actualization. The individual elements of the program in their entirety show how companies can use motivational theories to support employees and their own competitive goals.

The same argument can be made about how Alderfer's model applies to Trader Joe's. The only changes would be that Alderfer's existential needs would replace Maslow's physiological and security needs; Relational needs would replace social ones; and growth needs would replace the dimensions of esteem and self-actualization.

144.Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Alderfer's ERG theory are needs-oriented motivational theories. What are some major criticisms of Maslow's theory, and how does Alderfer's theory modify Maslow's?

Maslow's research was conducted in the clinical setting, raising questions about its applicability in the workplace, particularly given the lack of empirical support. In addition, the model proposes that needs are ordered hierarchically and that when a need is satisfied, the next higher need becomes the focus of effort. However, people can be observed who, while pursuing an overarching need, seem to be motivated not only by that need but also by aspects of the preceding one. For example, if a person was so poor that they had no food and no home, the fear of becoming homeless again might still drive them to some extent, even after some success. Consequently, research has not supported the argument that one need is always dominant or that a need once satisfied is not motivating.

Alderfer's model addresses some of these concerns by first offering needs in a categorical framework (existence, relationship, and growth) rather than in a hierarchical manner. This representation suggests that more than one need can be motivating at any given time. Additionally, Alderfer offers a "frustration regression" hypothesis in his model, which suggests that when people become frustrated in pursuing a particular need, they may revert to a different motivating behavioral need. In short, Alderfer suggests that more than one need can be motivating at any given time.

145.Herzberg has been heavily criticized for his research, which found that salary is a hygiene factor. Describe the nature of the hygiene factors and how the salary fits into this category. What are the implications of this finding for managers in the workplace?

Hygiene factors are those found in connection with the work environment. Herzberg argues, based on his study, that these factors are what one would expect in their environment. For example, the physical environment must be free from hazards where it is neither too hot nor too cold to work. The worker is essentially neutral when these environmental factors are as expected. Only when the factors are unexpected and problematic does the employee react and express his dissatisfaction. For example, if the air conditioning goes out in an office during the summer months, sweaty employees are likely to complain loudly. Herzberg claims that the salary fits that profile. Of course, employees expect a certain payment, at least the minimum wage, only if their payment does not correspond to the market level, for example, will they complain and look for other options.

The important implication of Herzberg's theory is that while managers need to be aware of environmental factors and how to improve them, this is not enough to motivate an employee. Context factors play a role because when they are absent, employees are unhappy. The work and its content must also be discussed.

146.McClelland's theory of acquired needs has been tested in different cultures. Choose a country whose culture you know. Describe some key aspects of the culture and which of the three needs may be more pronounced among the country's residents. Please justify your suggestions.

Answers vary. A general example: Latin American cultures tend to focus on close-knit work groups with strong interpersonal interactions between individuals. One professor's personal experience is that Hispanic workers are very attuned to the likes and dislikes of others. If you mention that you like someone's shirt, you can receive a gift box containing an identical shirt the next day. These concrete examples clearly reflect the need for membership guidance.

147.You are a trained expert in interpreting TAT response themes. You get the following story based on the respondent looking at the TAT image in your book:Jacqueline recently graduated from the University of Michigan and now works as a Marketing Specialist for a Fortune 500 company. She just completed her first marketing campaign for the company. The campaign was a great success. Take another look at the plaque presented to him by the VP of Marketing to commemorate the campaign's success.Analyze this story to determine the key themes, and then identify what McClelland's needs seem to be most common and how that impacts that employee's leadership.

Topics: Achievement: Graduate from a major research university, driving force behind a high-profile marketing campaign, and recipient of the event's plaque.

Goal Driven: Graduate, Marketing Campaigns Coordinator.

Feedback oriented: Enjoy the plate you received.

The McClelland theme that best describes Jacqueline is the need for achievement. The best way to guide Jacqueline is to continue to provide her with situations in which to create and achieve goals, and then provide feedback that recognizes the achievements made. Those who have high performance requirements meet deadlines, come up with innovative ideas and achieve success. Managers simply have to support these dimensions.

148.You are the new dean of the business administration department at a large university. One of the first tasks she has set herself is to review the salaries of non-tenured teachers. They note that the OB trainer has similar qualifications to the marketing trainer, but is paid $5,000 less per year for similar teaching assignments. They also know that faculty members recently discovered all the faculty's salaries when the payroll office mistakenly sent an email with that information. If you know the theory of justice, what reactions to inequality might you expect and how would you deal with it?

Justice theory suggests that a person evaluates two metrics: First, a self-evaluation rate that compares one's input with the results. When the outcome is favorable given the input invested, a person feels fair. This self-assessed proportion is then compared to a similar proportion that was "mentally" prepared by a speaker. Once again, the comparison leads to feelings of fairness or injustice. In this scenario, a comparison of the OB trainer with the marketing lecturer, all other things being equal, leads to the OB trainer feeling unequally treated by the university.

Knowing the injustice felt by the OB Instructor, the Dean could consider several different options to counteract the sense of injustice in the university system. For example, the dean could try to help the OB trainer change their perception of their own contributions and outcomes or of the speaker. In particular, the dean could help the OB instructor see that he really hasn't worked on his classes or taught them as successfully as he thinks he has (perhaps by providing a student evaluation of his classes). Other options to address the perceived injustice are: have the referrer increase their contribution, have the OB trainer decrease their contribution or try to improve the results, switch comparators (perhaps switch to another OB trainer to compare) and let the OB coach leave university.

149.General Motors, Ford and Daimler Chrysler close numerous factories and lay off thousands of employees. Based on your research on procedural fairness, what recommendations could you make for companies to be fair to these individuals?

Again, the answers will vary. Among the options auto companies could use is for laid-off employees to be informed in advance of employment measures, giving them a chance to prepare for the big impact on life. Other options include: giving workers a say in decision-making, providing full explanations on the need for such employment measures, and treating all workers equally (establishing a procedure for determining layoffs and not deviating from the plan). ) .

150.Using expectancy theory, describe the thought process a pharmaceutical salesperson might go through when their company has developed a new drug and offers them the option of keeping their old products or adding the new product to their account.

Expectation theory suggests that three factors should be examined. First, there is the notion of expectation itself. Will my effort lead to peak performance? In this case, does the seller believe they can sell the new drug? Will your current sales techniques allow you to maintain your high level of performance?

The second issue to consider is instrumentality. Instrumentality is the degree to which the person believes achievement is related to rewards. Will sales of this drug bring good commissions?

Finally, the notion of valence must be evaluated. Are the commissions large enough to facilitate such an effort? When these questions are considered together, the motivation for taking the action is determined. The role of the manager of this pharmaceutical supplier is to try to influence all of these perceptions.

151.You were hired to replace a very unpopular manager in a marketing department. Department members have been particularly vocal about how unfair the previous manager was in conducting performance reviews and awarding performance bonuses. What are your ideas about being a fair person?

To be fair, you need to address a few key questions:

The previous manager may not have done this, but when distributing rewards, you need to be careful to take into account the varied contributions of your employees. Not all employees contribute equally, and it is unfair to reward all employees with the largest share.

That being said, there are times when the nature of people's contributions should be ignored and the rewards shared out evenly. For example, if a luncheon is held to celebrate the achievement of a production goal, all employees should be invited, not just those most directly responsible for making the actual product.

You also need to pay attention to how you actually make decisions. Although you are responsible for your decisions, you should not always make those decisions unilaterally. Talk to your employees and gain perspectives from those who will be affected by the decisions.

Be careful how you talk to people. Use the old adage: treat people how you would like to be treated.

Justice is also in the eye of the beholder. Even if you feel like you're being fair, everyone has a different perception. Acknowledge and accept it.

Ultimately, people care about how they are treated, but they also care about how they treat others.

With these thoughts in mind, you will have a head start in overcoming the problems your predecessor created.

152.Many companies are introducing employee wellness programs to improve the health and well-being of those employees and reduce healthcare premiums. Use the stages of organizational behavior change to explain how to change employee health in the workplace.

Stage 1: Identify the behavior to change. Obese people, particularly those with established clinical obesity, pose real medical problems both now and in the future. Identifying those individuals whose BMI (body mass index) indicates they are candidates for future medical problems is a important first step.

Stage 2: Measure reference level. A company may decide to launch a wellness program by promoting the ability to privately measure your BMI. Many companies hold a team competition to measure department members. For example, the department with the most people measured may receive $5 gift cards to a local restaurant.

Stage 3: Analyze your history and results: Once the BMI has been determined and the potential level of obesity in the company has been determined, the company can begin to identify the possible causes of the weight problem among its employees. Often the problem lies in lack of exercise.

Stage 4: Intervene. If inactivity is a contributing problem for company employees, a program can be created to address the problem. Many companies participate in a walking program called America on the Move. The program distributes pedometers to all participants and calculates the reference number of steps over the course of the day. Once this baseline is assessed, the company attempts to encourage employees to increase their number of steps per day. A goal might be to walk 2,000 extra steps every day.

Stage 5: Evaluate and maintain. Teams are formed within company departments and compete against each other as each individual and group tries to reach the goal of 2,000 steps per day. After a set period of time, progress toward the goal is evaluated, and teams and individuals who achieve the goal are rewarded for their efforts. At a university that implements this program, those who achieve the goal will have their monthly insurance premiums reduced according to a set formula for each month of goal achievement. Clearly, the overall effect is that employees become healthier and the company's overall health insurance premiums are reduced.

(Video) Organizational Behavior (Robbins and Judge) Chapter 05 -- Personality and Values


1. Organizational Behavior - Chapter 5 - Part
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2. Organizational Behavior - Chapter 5 - Part
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3. Organizational Behavior - Chapter 5 - Part
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5. Organizational Behavior - Chapter 5 - Part
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6. OB Chapter 5 motivation incentives and rewards
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